The Amazing Hoddøya Bronze Age Spear – A Gift to the Gods

The Amazing Hoddøya Bronze Age Spear – A Gift to the Gods

By ThorNews

Year 872 BC, Hoddøya, an island in the Namsen Fjord in Central Norway : A tall man with long gray hair wearing a bear claw necklace is standing in the middle of a circle surrounded by people. In his right hand he holds a large and beautifully decorated spear sparkling in gold when it is hit by the sun.

The song stops, and the man raises the spear over his head while speaking to the gods and the spirits of the ancestors. Then he sticks it down into the marsh, and as he pulls over a flat stone as cover he whispers: ‘Gods and the spirits of our ancestors, accept our gift as a sign of humility.’

This may be how the sacrifice of the Hoddøya spear was carried out about 3000 years ago, and in 1922 it is in this marsh on the fertile island in the Namsen Fjord the spear by accident was found by some road workers.

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Bay and marsh on the Hoddøya Island. (Photos: Daniel Christiansen / ThorNews)

Large and Beautiful

The spearhead made of bronze is one of the largest and most beautiful ever found in Northern Europe. It is 58 centimeters (22.8 in) long and ornate with a meander border (“Greek lines”) and concentric hemispheres.

The Nordic Bronze Age lasted from about 1700-500 BC, and the Hoddøya spear is dated to the younger Bronze Age Period V, i.e. 950-800 BC.

What we know, is that it was discovered by road workers in a marsh at the Svartvatnet (“Black Water”) lake on the Hoddøya Island. The spear was stuck down between custom stones with a flat stone placed on top, like a kind of lid, showing that this was a sacrificial gift.

We know that the spearhead is made of bronze, an alloy consisting primarily of copper, and that it is 58 centimeters long and has decor elements from both Western Baltic and Swiss regions.

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A copy of the Hoddøya Bronze Age spear is at displayed in the Coastal Museum Norveg. (Photo: Sigmund Alsaker / Coastal Museum Norveg)

In the Bronze Age, marshes were probably seen as a door between the world of humans and gods, and it is therefore not uncommon to find sacrifices such as beautiful jewelry and weapons in marshes all over Scandinavia.

However, the Hoddøya spear is really unique.

Many Questions – Few Answers

The researchers believe that this special item once belonged to a powerful leader, but this is just a theory. It could as well have belonged to a priest or been produced as a worthy sacrifice made for a special occasion.

Despite decorative elements from both the Western Baltics and Swiss regions there are, according to Norwegian archaeologists, many indications that these types of large spears may have been produced locally.

We know that Nordic Bronze Age people did have contact eastwards for at least 1300 years before the Hoddøya spear was made, and that they had access to metals and probably also knowledge of how to cast elaborate bronze jewelry and weapons.

Another “proof” is the little-known clay stone mold currently being stored in the NTNU University Museum in Trondheim. This is the only Bronze Age spearhead mold found in Norway.

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Bronze spearhead stone mold found in Gullvika, Namsos, Central Norway. (Photo: NTNU University Museum, Trondheim)

The find is almost unknown outside the Norwegian archaeological community and the form was discovered on the mainland in the 1950s, not many kilometers away from the Hoddøya finding.

The most sensational thing about this particular spear is that it was found so far north, at “the end of the known world”. This shows that Bronze Age people many thousands of years ago used trade routes and exchanged knowledge far more extensively than what researchers so far have believed.

Bronze was the most important commodity and linked people all across Europe and Asia closer together.

Today, the spearhead from Hoddøya is exhibited at the NTNU University Museum in Trondheim.


1900s Edit

Modern historians divide the 20th-century history of American superhero comics into "ages," The Golden Age being the first.

Creation Edit

In an October 25, 1940, interview with the Family Circle magazine, William Moulton Marston discussed the unfulfilled potential of the comic book medium. [19] This article caught the attention of comics publisher Max Gaines, who hired Marston as an educational consultant for National Periodicals and All-American Publications, two of the companies that would merge to form DC Comics. [20] At that time, Marston wanted to create his own new superhero Marston's wife and fellow psychologist Elizabeth suggested to him that it should be a woman: [21]

William Moulton Marston, a psychologist already famous for inventing the polygraph, struck upon an idea for a new kind of superhero, one who would triumph not with fists or firepower, but with love. "Fine," said Elizabeth. "But make her a woman."

Marston introduced the idea to Gaines. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman, whom he believed to be a model of that era's unconventional, liberated woman. Marston also drew inspiration from the bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, who lived with the couple in a polyamorous relationship. [22] Wonder Woman debuted in All Star Comics #8 (cover date Dec/Jan 1941/1942, released in October 1941), [23] scripted by Marston.

Marston was the creator of a systolic-blood-pressure-measuring apparatus, which was crucial to the development of the polygraph (lie detector). Marston's experience with polygraphs convinced him that women were more honest than men in certain situations and could work more efficiently. [24]

Marston designed Wonder Woman to be an allegory for the ideal love leader the kind of women who he believed should run society.

"Frankly, Wonder Woman is psychological propaganda for the new type of woman who, I believe, should rule the world", Marston wrote. [25]

In a 1943 issue of The American Scholar, Marston wrote: [26]

Not even girls want to be girls so long as our feminine archetype lacks force, strength, and power. Not wanting to be girls, they don't want to be tender, submissive, peace-loving as good women are. Women's strong qualities have become despised because of their weakness. The obvious remedy is to create a feminine character with all the strength of Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman.

Marston was an outspoken feminist, polyamorist, and firm believer in the superiority of women. [27] [28] He described bondage and submission as a "respectable and noble practice". Marston wrote in a weakness for Wonder Woman, which was attached to a fictional stipulation that he dubbed "Aphrodite's Law", that made the chaining of her "Bracelets of Submission" together by a man take away her Amazonian super strength. [29]

The only hope for peace is to teach people who are full of pep and unbound force to enjoy being bound. only when the control of self by others is more pleasant than the unbound assertion of self in human relationships can we hope for a stable, peaceful human society.

Wonder Woman often ended up in chains before inevitably breaking free. This not only represented Marston's affinity for bondage, but women's subjugation, which he roundly rejected. However, not everything about his creation was explicitly explained in any one source, which caused confusion among writers and fans for many years.

Golden Age Edit

Initially, Wonder Woman was an Amazon champion who wins the right to return Steve Trevor – a United States intelligence officer whose plane had crashed on the Amazons' isolated island homeland – to "Man's World" and to fight crime and the evil of the Nazis. [30]

During this period, Wonder Woman joined the Justice Society of America as the team's secretary. [31] [32]

Silver Age Edit

During the Silver Age, under writer Robert Kanigher, Wonder Woman's origin was revamped, [33] along with other characters'. The new origin story increased the character's Hellenic and mythological roots: receiving the blessing of each deity in her crib, Diana is destined to become as "beautiful as Aphrodite, wise as Athena, strong as Hercules, and swift as Hermes." [34]

At the end of the 1960s, under the guidance of Mike Sekowsky, Wonder Woman surrendered her powers in order to remain in Man's World rather than accompany her fellow Amazons to another dimension. Wonder Woman begins using the alias Diana Prince and opens a mod boutique. She acquires a Chinese mentor named I Ching, who teaches Diana martial arts and weapons skills. Using her fighting skill instead of her powers, Diana engaged in adventures that encompassed a variety of genres, from espionage to mythology. [35] [36] This phase of her story was directly influenced by the British spy thriller The Avengers and Diana Rigg's portrayal of Emma Peel. [37]

Bronze Age Edit

In the early 1970s the character returned to her superhero roots in the Justice League of America and to the World War II era in her own title. [38] This, however, was ultimately due to the popularity of the TV series at the time also having Wonder Woman set in the WWII era, and was shifted back to the 1970s era once the TV show did the same.

With a new decade arriving, DC president Jenette Kahn ordered a revamp in Wonder Woman's appearance. Artist Milton Glaser, who also designed the "bullet" logo adopted by DC in 1977, created a stylized "WW" emblem that evoked and replaced the eagle in her bodice and debuted in 1982. [39] The emblem in turn was incorporated by studio letterer Todd Klein onto the monthly title's logo, which lasted for a year and a half before being replaced by a version from Glaser's studio. [40] With sales of the title continuing to decline in 1985 (despite an unpublished revamp that was solicited), the series was canceled and ended in issue #329 (February 1986) written by Gerry Conway, depicting Steve Trevor's marriage to Wonder Woman.

The Crisis on Infinite Earths crossover of 1985 was designed and written with the purpose of streamlining most of DC's characters into one more-focused continuity and reinventing them for a new era, thus Wonder Woman and Steve Trevor were declared to come from the Earth-Two dimension, and along with all of their exploits, were erased from history, so that a new Wonder Woman character, story and timeline could take priority.

Modern Age Edit

Following the 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths series, George Pérez, Len Wein, and Greg Potter rewrote the character's origin story, depicting Wonder Woman as an emissary and ambassador from Themyscira to Patriarch's World, charged with the mission of bringing peace to the outside world. Pérez incorporated a variety of deities and concepts from Greek mythology in Wonder Woman's stories and origin. His rendition of the character acted as the foundation for the modern Wonder Woman stories, as he expanded upon the widely accepted origin of Diana being birthed out of clay. The relaunch was a critical and commercial success. [41]

2000s Edit

2010s Edit

In August 2010 (issue #600), J. Michael Straczynski took over the series' writing duties and introduced Wonder Woman to an alternate timeline created by the Gods in which Paradise Island had been destroyed and the Amazons scattered around the world. [42] In this timeline, Diana is an orphan raised in New York. The entire world has forgotten Wonder Woman's existence and the main story of this run was of Diana trying to restore reality even though she does not properly remember it herself. A trio of Death Goddesses called The Morrigan acted as the main enemy of Wonder Woman. [43] [44] In this run, Wonder Woman wears a new costume designed by Jim Lee. [45] Straczynski determined the plot and continued writing duties until Wonder Woman #605 writer Phil Hester then continued his run, which ultimately concluded in Wonder Woman #614. [46]

In 2011's The New 52, DC Comics relaunched its entire line of publications to attract a new generation of readers, and thus released volume 4 of the Wonder Woman comic book title. Brian Azzarello and Cliff Chiang were assigned writing and art duties respectively and revamped the character's history considerably. In this new continuity, Wonder Woman wears a costume similar to her original Marston costume, utilizes a sword and shield, and has a completely new origin. No longer a clay figure brought to life by the magic of the gods, she is, instead, a demi-goddess and the natural-born daughter of Hippolyta and Zeus. Azzarello and Chiang's revamp of the character was critically acclaimed, but highly divisive among longtime fans of the character. [47] [48] [49] [50]

In 2016, DC Comics once again relaunched all of its publications as part of the "DC Rebirth" continuity reboot, and the new fifth volume of Wonder Woman was released semi-monthly with writer Greg Rucka. This fifth volume of Wonder Woman is part of the "DC Universe", the current continuity established after Rebirth. Initially, the new series does not use a regular storyline that exists between each issue instead two separate storylines share the book, with an installment of one story published every other issue, and those of the other storyline published in between those. This practice began with the storyline "The Lies", for the odd numbered issues, and "Year One", for the even numbered issues. The new storyline as presented in these issues effectively retcons the events from the previous New 52 series. "The Lies" [51] storyline reveals that numerous events from the previous Wonder Woman series, in which Diana was made the Queen of the Amazons and the God of War, were in fact all an illusion created by a mysterious villain, and she had never once been back to Themyscira ever since she left, nor is she capable of returning there. The "Year One" story is presented as an all-new origin story for Diana, [52] which reveals how she received her powers from the Olympian Gods, [53] which was intended to bring her back to her classical DC roots. Wonder Woman appears in DC Rebirth with a revised look, which includes a red cape and light armor fittings. Along with her lasso and bracelets, she now regularly utilizes her sword and shield. Wonder Woman: Rebirth artist Liam Sharp described the new armor as a utilitarian piece which allows her to move more freely. [54] Starting from Issue 26, the series returned to a regular storyline between each issue.

In 2018, DC Comics announced that Ms. Marvel creator G. Willow Wilson will be the new writer on the Wonder Woman ongoing series. Wilson will begin her run on Wonder Woman in November, with the first story arc titled, "The Just War." [55]

Diana Prince Edit

The "Diana Prince" identity has been part of Wonder Woman's history since her comics debut in 1941. In the early Golden Age stories, Wonder Woman served as a military secretary during World War II, using Prince as her cover. Later occupations Wonder Woman performed as Prince included translator at the United Nations, Air Force captain and ambassador, and in the '70s TV series, Lynda Carter's Wonder Woman used Prince to serve as an agent of the Inter-Agency Defense Command. In the DC Extended Universe, Prince works as curator for the Department of Antiquities [56] at the extremely prestigious Louvre Museum and is held in very high esteem by the curator of the Gotham City Museum of Antiquities. Her tremendously long life span, accumulation of immense amount of knowledge and exceptional perceptiveness makes Diana Prince the wisest and most emotionally-intelligent member of the Justice League. [57] [58]

During Marston's run, Diana Prince was the name of an army nurse whom Wonder Woman met. The nurse wanted to meet with her fiancé, who was transferred to South America, but was unable to arrange for money to do so. As Wonder Woman needed a secret identity to look after Steve (who was admitted to the same army hospital in which Diana Prince worked), and because both of them looked alike, Wonder Woman gave the nurse money to go to her fiancé in exchange for the nurse's credentials and took Diana Prince as her alias. [59] She started to work as an army nurse and later as an Air Force secretary. [59] [60]

The identity of Diana Prince was especially prominent in a series published in the early 1970s, in which she fought crime only under the Prince alias and without her mystic powers. To support herself, she ran a mod clothing boutique. [61] [62]

The Diana Prince alias also played an important role after the events of Infinite Crisis. Wonder Woman was broadcast worldwide killing a villain named Maxwell Lord, as he was mind controlling Superman into killing Batman. When Wonder Woman caught him in her lasso, demanding to know how to stop Superman, Maxwell revealed that the only way to stop him was to kill Lord, so as a last resort Diana snapped his neck. [63] [64] To recover from the trauma of killing another person, the Amazon went into a self-imposed exile for one year. [65] On her return to public life, Diana realized that her life as a full-time celebrity superhero and ambassador had kept her removed from humanity. Because of this she assumed the persona of Diana Prince and became an agent at the Department of Metahuman Affairs. During a later battle with the witch Circe, a spell was placed on Diana leaving her powerless when not in the guise of Wonder Woman. [66]

The New 52 universe does not have a "Diana Prince" identity as stated in an interview by series writer Brian Azzarello. [67] However, when she and Superman began dating, for her civilian identity she used the Diana Prince alias whenever she was around Clark Kent such as when she introduced herself to Lois Lane at Lois's housewarming party under that name. [68]

The DC Rebirth universe has not featured the Diana Prince identity as much in favor of Wonder Woman going by Diana of Themyscira in her downtime.

Personality Edit

She serves as a symbol of integrity and humanity, so that the world of men would know what it means to be an Amazon. With a hundred times the agility and strength of our best male athletes and strongest wrestlers, she appears as though from nowhere to avenge an injustice or right a wrong!

As lovely as Aphrodite- as wise as Athena- with the speed of Mercury and the strength of Hercules - She is known only as Wonder Woman!

—Narrator – All Star Comics #8 (Introducing Wonder Woman) - Written by William Moulton Marston

Princess Diana commands respect both as Wonder Woman and Diana Prince her epithetical title – The Amazon Princess – illustrates the dichotomy of her character. She is a powerful, strong-willed character who does not back down from a fight or a challenge. Yet, she is a diplomat who strongly "favors the pen", and a lover of peace who would never seek to fight or escalate a conflict. She's simultaneously both the most fierce and most nurturing member of the Justice League and her political connections as a United Nations Honorary Ambassador and the ambassador of a warrior nation makes her an invaluable addition to the team. With her powerful abilities, centuries of training and experience at handling threats that range from petty crime to threats that are of a magical or supernatural nature, Diana is capable of competing with nearly any hero or villain. [ citation needed ]

Many writers have depicted Diana in different personalities and tone between both of her diametric extremes that of a worldly warrior, a highly compassionate and calm ambassador, and sometimes also as a naive and innocent person, depending on the writer. What has remained constant, and is a mainstay of the character, is her nurturing humanity: her overwhelming belief in love, empathy, compassion, and having a strong conscience. [ citation needed ] This trait had been the reason for her induction into the Star Sapphires. [69] [70]

Writer Gail Simone was applauded for her portrayal of Wonder Woman during her run on the series, with comic book reviewer Dan Phillips of IGN noting that "she's molded Diana into a very relatable and sympathetic character." [71]

Actress Gal Gadot described Wonder Woman as "an idealist. Experienced, super-confident. Open and sincere even in the midst of a gruesome, bloody conflict. Having many strengths and powers, but at the end of the day she's a woman with a lot of emotional intelligence". [72] [73]

In the Golden Age, Wonder Woman adhered to an Amazon code of helping any in need, even misogynistic people, and never accepting a reward for saving someone [74] while conversely, the modern version of the character has been shown to perform lethal and fatal actions when left with no other alternative, exemplified in the killing of Maxwell Lord in order to save Superman's life. [63] [64]

The New 52 version of the character has been portrayed to be a younger, more headstrong, loving, fierce and willful person. [ citation needed ] Brian Azzarello stated in a video interview with DC Comics that they're building a very "confident", "impulsive" and "good-hearted" character in her. He referred to her trait of feeling compassion as both her strength and weakness. [75]

A distinctive trait of her characterization is a group of signature mythological exclamations, beginning with "Great Aphrodite!", followed by "Great Hera!", [76] "Merciful Minerva!", and "Suffering Sappho!', some of which were contributed by Elizabeth Holloway Marston. [77] [6]

Others Edit

Diana, after her death, was granted divinity as the Goddess of Truth by her gods for such faithful devotion. [78] During her brief time as a god of Olympus, Diana was replaced in the role of Wonder Woman by her mother, Queen Hippolyta. [79] Unlike Diana receiving the title of Wonder Woman in honor, Hippolyta's role as Wonder Woman was meant to be a punishment for her betrayal in Artemis' death as well as for unintentionally killing her own daughter. [80] However, Hippolyta eventually grew to enjoy the freedom and adventure the title came with. Whereas Diana used the Lasso of Truth as her primary weapon, Hippolyta favored a broad sword.

John Byrne, the writer that introduced the concept of Hippolyta as the first Wonder Woman, has explained his intentions in a post in his message board:

I thought George's one "mistake" in rebooting Wonder Woman was making her only 25 years old when she left Paradise Island. I preferred the idea of a Diana who was thousands of years old (as, if I recall correctly, she was in the TV series). From that angle, I would have liked to have seen Diana having been Wonder Woman in WW2, and be returning to our world in the reboot. Not having that option, I took the next best course, and had Hippolyta fill that role. [81]

As Wonder Woman, Queen Hippolyta immediately got involved in a time travel mission back to the 1940s with Jay Garrick. [82] After this mission, she elected to join the Justice Society of America and remained in that era for eight years, where her teammates nicknamed her "Polly". During that time she had a relationship with Ted Grant. [83] Hippolyta also made visits into the past to see her godchild Lyta, daughter of Hippolyta's protege Helena, the Golden Age Fury. [ volume & issue needed ] These visits happened yearly from young Lyta's perspective and also accounted for Hippolyta's participation in the JSA/JLA team ups. When she returned from the past, Hippolyta took Diana's place in the JLA as well. [84] [85]

Artemis of Bana-Mighdall briefly served as Wonder Woman during Hippolyta's trials for a new Wonder Woman. Orana, a character similar to Artemis, defeated Diana in a new contest and became Wonder Woman in pre-Crisis on Infinite Earths continuity. Orana was killed during her first mission. Others who have donned the Wonder Woman persona include Nubia, Cassandra Sandsmark, and Donna Troy.

20th century Edit

Origin Edit

In her debut in All Star Comics #8, Diana was a member of a tribe of women called the Amazons, native to Paradise Island – a secluded island set in the middle of a vast ocean. Captain Steve Trevor's plane crashes on the island and he is found alive but unconscious by Diana and fellow Amazon, and friend, Mala. Diana has him nursed back to health and falls in love with him. A competition is held amongst all the Amazons by Diana's mother, the Queen of the Amazons Hippolyta, in order to determine who is the most worthy of all the women Hippolyta charges the winner with the responsibility of delivering Captain Steve Trevor back to Man's World and to fight for justice. Hippolyta forbids Diana from entering the competition, but she takes part nonetheless, wearing a mask to conceal her identity. She wins the competition and reveals herself, surprising Hippolyta, who ultimately accepts, and must give in to, Diana's wish to go to Man's World. She then is awarded a special uniform made by her mother for her new role as Wonder Woman and safely returns Steve Trevor to his home country. [86] [87]

Golden Age Edit

Coming to America for the first time, Wonder Woman comes upon a wailing army nurse who happens to look identical to her. Inquiring about her state, she finds that the nurse wanted to leave for South America with her fiancé but was unable due to shortage of money. As Wonder Woman needed a job and a valid identity to look after Steve (who was admitted in the same army hospital), she gives her the money she had earned earlier to help her go to her fiancé in exchange for her credentials. The nurse reveals her name as Diana Prince, and thus, Wonder Woman's secret identity was created, and she began working as a nurse in the army. [59] [88]

Wonder Woman then took part in a variety of adventures, mostly side by side with Trevor. Her most common foes during this period would be Nazi forces led by a German baroness named Paula von Gunther, occasionally evil deities/demigods such as Mars and the Duke of Deception, and then colorful villains like Hypnota, Doctor Psycho, and Cheetah. [89]

Silver Age Edit

In the Silver Age, Wonder Woman's history received several changes. Her earlier origin, which had significant ties to World War II, was changed and her powers were shown to be the product of the gods' blessings, corresponding to her epithet, "beautiful as Aphrodite, wise as Athena, stronger than Hercules, and swifter than Hermes". [34] [90] The concepts of Wonder Girl and Wonder Tot were also introduced during this period. [91]

Wonder Woman (vol. 1) #179 (Nov. 1969) showed Wonder Woman giving up her powers and returning her costume and title to her mother, in order to continue staying in Man's World. The reason behind this was that all the Amazons were shifting to another dimension, but Diana was unable to accompany them as she needed to stay behind to help Steve, who had been wrongly convicted. [92] Thus, she no longer held the title of Wonder Woman and after meeting and training under a blind martial arts mentor I-Ching, Diana resumed crime fighting as the powerless Diana Prince. She ran a mod-boutique as a business and dressed in a series of jumpsuits while fighting crime. [36] [61] [62] [93] [94] During this period, Samuel R. Delany took over scripting duties with issue #202. Delany was initially supposed to write a six-issue story arc, which would culminate in a battle over an abortion clinic, but Delany was removed reportedly due to criticism from Gloria Steinem, who, not knowing the content of the issues Delany was writing, was upset that Wonder Woman had lost her powers and was no longer wearing her traditional costume. [ citation needed ]

Bronze Age Edit

In Wonder Woman Vol. 1 #204, Diana's magical powers and costume were returned to her and she is once again reinstated as Wonder Woman. [94] I-Ching is killed by a crazy sniper in the same issue. [95] Later, Diana meets her sister Nubia, who is Hippolyta's daughter fashioned out of dark clay (hence Nubia's dark complexion). [96] [97] Nubia claimed to be the "Wonder Woman of The Floating Island", and she challenges Diana to a duel which ends in a draw. [97] Returning to her home, Nubia would have further adventures involving Diana. [96]

The last issue of Volume 1 showed Diana and Steve Trevor announce their love for each other and their subsequent marriage. [98] [99]

Modern Age Edit

Crisis on Infinite Earths Edit

The events of Crisis on Infinite Earths greatly changed and altered the history of the DC Universe. Wonder Woman's history and origin were considerably revamped by the event. Wonder Woman was now an emissary and ambassador from Themyscira (the new name for Paradise Island) to Patriarch's World, charged with the mission of bringing peace to the outside world. Various deities and concepts from Greek mythology were blended and incorporated into Wonder Woman's stories and origin. Diana was formed out of clay of the shores of Themyscira by Hippolyta, who wished for a child the clay figure was then brought to life by the Greek deities. The Gods then blessed and granted her unique powers and abilities – beauty from Aphrodite, strength from Demeter, wisdom from Athena, speed and flight from Hermes, Eyes of the Hunter and unity with beasts from Artemis and sisterhood with fire and the ability to discern the truth from Hestia. [100] Due to the reboot, Diana's operating methods were made distinctive from Superman and Batman's with her willingness to use deadly force when she judges it necessary. In addition, her previous history and her marriage to Steve Trevor were erased. Trevor was introduced as a man much older than Diana who would later on marry Etta Candy. [101] Instead, Perez created Julia and Vanessa Kapatelis, a Greek-American scholar and her teenage daughter whom Diana would live with when she was in Man's world and would be major supporting characters in the series for years.

War of the Gods Edit

Starting in Wonder Woman vol. 2 #51, the Amazons, who had revealed their presence to the world in Wonder Woman vol. 2 #50, are blamed for a series of murders and for the theft of various artifacts. The Amazons are then taken into custody, Queen Hippolyta is nowhere to be found and Steve Trevor is forced by General Yedziniak to attack Themyscira. These events lead to the "War of the Gods" occurring. The culprit of the murders, thefts and the framing of the Amazons is revealed to be the witch Circe, who "kills" Diana by reverting her form back into the clay she was born from. Later, Wonder Woman is brought back to life and together with Donna Troy, battles Circe and ultimately defeats her. [102] [103] [104] [105] Circe would later return by unknown means.

When Hippolyta and the other Amazons were trapped in a demonic dimension, she started receiving visions about the death of Wonder Woman. [106] Fearing her daughter's death, Hippolyta created a false claim that Diana was not worthy of continuing her role as Wonder Woman, and arranged for a contest to determine who would be the new Wonder Woman, thus protecting Diana from her supposed fate. [107] The participants of the final round were Diana and Artemis, and with the help of some mystic manipulation by Hippolyta, Artemis won the contest. [108] Thus, Diana was forced to hand over her title and costume to Artemis, who became the new Wonder Woman and Diana started fighting crime in an alternate costume. [109] Artemis later died in battle with the White Magician – thus, Hippolyta's vision of a dying Wonder Woman did come true, albeit not of Diana as Wonder Woman. [110] Diana once again became Wonder Woman, a request made by Artemis in her last seconds. Artemis would later return as Requiem. Prior to Artemis' death, Hippolyta would admit to her daughter about her own part in Artemis' death, which strained their relationship as Diana was unable to forgive her mother for sending another Amazon to her death knowingly for the sake of saving her own daughter.

The demon Neron engaged Diana in battle and managed to kill her. [111] The Olympian Gods granted Diana divinity and the role of the Goddess of Truth who started to reside in Olympus her mother Hippolyta then assumed the role of Wonder Woman and wore her own different incarnation of the costume. [111] In Wonder Woman Vol. 2 #136, Diana was banished from Olympus due to interfering in earthly matters (as Diana was unable to simply watch over people's misery on Earth). [111] She immediately returned to her duties as Wonder Woman, but ran into conflicts with her mother over her true place and role as Hippolyta seemed accustomed to her life in America. [111] Their fight remained unsolved, as Hippolyta died during an intergalactic war. [111] Themyscira was destroyed during the war, but was restored and reformed as a collection of floating islands. [111] Circe later resurrected Hippolyta in Wonder Woman Vol 3 #8. [112]

The OMAC Project Edit

One of the events that led to Infinite Crisis was of Wonder Woman killing the villain Maxwell Lord in Wonder Woman (vol. 2) #219. [113] Maxwell Lord was mind-controlling Superman, who as a result was near to killing Batman. Wonder Woman tried to stop Superman, Lord (who was unable to mind control her) made Superman see her as his enemy Doomsday trying to kill Lois Lane. Superman then attacked Wonder Woman, and a vicious battle ensued. Buying herself time by slicing Superman's throat with her tiara, Wonder Woman caught Lord in her Lasso of Truth and demanded to know how to stop his control over Superman. As the lasso forced the wearer to speak only the truth, Lord told her that the only way to stop him was to kill him. Left with no choice, Wonder Woman snapped Lord's neck and ended his control over Superman. [113] Unknown to her, the entire scene was broadcast live around every channel in the world by Brother Eye. The viewers were not aware of the entire situation, and saw only Wonder Woman murdering a Justice League associate. Wonder Woman's actions put her at odds with Batman and Superman, as they saw Wonder Woman as a cold-blooded killer, despite the fact that she saved their lives. [114]

One Year Later Edit

At the end of Infinite Crisis, Wonder Woman temporarily retires from her costumed identity. Diana, once again using the alias Diana Prince, joins the Department of Metahuman Affairs. Donna Troy becomes the new Wonder Woman and is captured by Diana's enemies. Diana then goes on a mission to rescue her sister, battling Circe and Hercules. Diana defeats the villains, freeing Donna and takes up the role of Wonder Woman again. Circe places a spell on Diana, which renders Diana into a normal, powerless human being when in the role of Diana Prince her powers come to her only when she is in the role of Wonder Woman. [115] [116] [117] [118] [119]

The Circle Edit

The storyline "The Circle" was focused on the revelation of a failed assassination attempt on Diana when she was a baby, by four rogue Amazons. [120] These Amazons – Myrto, Charis, Philomela and Alkyone, collectively referred to as The Circle – were Hippolyta's personal guards and were extremely loyal and devoted to her. [121] However, when Hippolyta decided to raise a daughter, The Circle was horrified and considered the baby ill-fate, one who would ruin their entire race. [122] Thus, after Diana was sculpted out of clay and brought to life, The Circle decided to assassinate the baby. Their attempt was foiled however, and the four Amazons were imprisoned. [123] After years, the Circle escaped their prisons with the help of Captain Nazi, and decided to accomplish their previously failed mission and kill Diana. Diana defeated Myrto, Charis, Philomela and then approached Alkyone, who runs off and succumbs to her death by falling into the ocean. The other three Amazons return to their prisons. [123] [124]

Issue #600 introduced Wonder Woman to an alternate timeline created by the Gods in which Themyscira had been destroyed and the Amazons scattered around the world. [42] In this timeline, Diana is an orphan raised in New York who is learning to cope with her powers. The entire world has forgotten Wonder Woman's existence and the main story of this run was of Diana trying to restore reality even though she does not properly remember it herself. [125] Diana has no memories of her prior adventures as Wonder Woman, recollecting her memories in bits and pieces and receiving different abilities and resources (such as the power of flight and her lasso) during the progression of her adventure. A trio of Death Goddesses called The Morrigan acted as Wonder Woman's main enemies. [126] Diana ultimately defeats the evil goddesses and returns everything back to normal. [127]

21st century Edit

The New 52 Edit

In September 2011, DC Comics relaunched its entire publication line in an initiative called The New 52. Among the major changes to the character, Wonder Woman now appears wearing a new costume similar to her older one, and has a completely new origin. In this new timeline, Wonder Woman is no longer a clay figure brought to life by the magic of the gods. Rather, she is the demigoddess daughter of Queen Hippolyta and Zeus: King of the Greek Gods. Her original origin is revealed as a cover story to explain Diana's birth as a means to protect her from Hera's wrath. Currently, Diana has taken on the role and title as the new "God of War". [128] [129]

The Greek messenger god, Hermes, entrusts Wonder Woman with the protection of Zola, a young woman, who is pregnant with Zeus's child, from Hera, seething with jealousy and determined to kill the child. [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] With the appearance of a bizarre, new, chalk-white enemy, the goddess Strife (a reimagined version of Eris, the goddess of discord who had battled Wonder Woman in post-Crisis continuity), Wonder Woman discovers she, herself, is the natural-born daughter of Hippolyta and Zeus, who, after a violent clash, became lovers. [135] Hippolyta revealed Diana's earlier origin story to be a lie, spread amongst the Amazons to protect Diana from the wrath of Hera, who is known for hunting and killing several illegitimate offspring of Zeus. [135]

The first of these half-mortal siblings to reveal himself to Wonder Woman was her older half-brother, Lennox Sandsmark, who could transform himself into living, marble-like stone and, before his death, was revealed to be the father of Wonder Girl (Cassie Sandsmark). [136] His killer, the First Born, the eldest progeny of Zeus, would become Wonder Woman's first major super-villain of the New 52.

The story then focuses on Wonder Woman's quest to rescue Zola from Hades, who had abducted her and taken her to Hell at the end of the sixth issue of the series. [137] [138] [139] [140] The male children of the Amazons are introduced and Diana learns about the birth of her "brothers" – the Amazons used to infrequently invade ships coming near their island and force themselves on the sailors, before killing them. After nine months, the birth of the resulting female children was highly celebrated and they were inducted into the ranks of the Amazons while the male children were rejected. In order to save the male children from being drowned to death by the Amazons, Hephaestus traded weapons to the Amazons in exchange for them. [137] [141] [142]

After saving Zola from Hades, Wonder Woman tries to protect her further from Apollo, as it is prophesied that one of Zeus' children will be his downfall whom Apollo considers to be Zola's child. [143] [144] Wonder Woman receives the power of flight by one of Hermes' feathers piercing her thigh and Zola's baby is stolen by Hermes at the end and given to Demeter. The issue's last page shows a dark and mysterious man rising from the snow, taking a helmet and disappearing. [145] [146] This man is later revealed to be Zeus' first son, known only as First Born, who seeks to rule over Olympus and the rest of the world, and take Diana as his bride. [ volume & issue needed ]

A stand-alone #0 issue was released in September which explored Diana's childhood and her tutelage under Ares, the God of War, now known most often as simply 'War'. [147] The issue was narrated in the style of a typical Silver Age comic book and saw Diana in her childhood years. [148] The main plot of the issue was Diana training under War as he thought of her being an extraordinary girl with immense potential. The issue ultimately concluded with Diana learning and experiencing the importance of mercy, which she first learned when War showed it to her during their sparring. This later translated into her refusal to kill the Minotaur – a task given to her by War however, this show of mercy makes her a failure in War's eyes, which was actually his fault since he inadvertently "taught" her mercy and affection as his protege. [147] [148] [149] Later in the series, Wonder Woman is forced to kill War during a conflict with her evil half-brother, Zeus' son First Born, and herself becomes the God of War. After the Amazons are restored, she rules over them both as a warrior queen and God of War, as the ongoing conflict with First Born escalates. At the end of Azzarello's run, as part of a final conflict, Wonder Woman kills First Born, while Zeke is revealed to have been Zeus' plan for resurrection, with Zola revealed to have been a mortal shell for the goddess Athena, who gave birth to Zeus just as he once did to her. Wonder Woman pleads with Athena not to allow the Zola personality, whom she has grown to love as a friend, die with Athena's awakening. Athena leaves the site in animal form, leaving a stunned and confused Zola behind with Wonder Woman. [150]

Wonder Woman appears as one of the lead characters in the Justice League title written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee that was launched in 2011 as part of The New 52. [151] In August 2012, she and Superman shared a kiss in Justice League Vol 2 #12, which has since developed into a romantic relationship. [152] [153] [154] DC launched a Superman/Wonder Woman series that debuted in late 2013, which focuses both the threats they face together, and on their romance as a "Power Couple". [155] [156]

After the events of "Convergence", Wonder Woman would don a new costume. She would also face Donna Troy, who is now reimagined as a villainous doppelgänger created by a vengeful Amazon elder, not only to physically defeat Wonder Woman but also to outmaneuver her in Themyscirian politics.

Earth 2 Edit

The New 52 version of Earth 2 was introduced in Earth 2 #1 (2012). In that issue, the Earth 2 Wonder Woman is introduced via flashback. She, along with Superman and Batman, are depicted dying in battle with forces from Apokolips five years in the past. [157] This Wonder Woman worshiped the deities of Roman mythology as opposed to the Greek the Roman gods perish as a result of the conflict. An earlier version of the Earth-2 Wonder Woman, prior to the Apokoliptian invasion, is seen in the comic book Batman/Superman, where she is seen riding a pegasus.

In Earth 2 #8 (2013), Wonder Woman's adult daughter, Fury, is introduced. She is loyal to the Apokoliptian Steppenwolf. [158]

DC Rebirth Edit

In 2016, DC Comics implemented DC Rebirth, a relaunch of its entire line of comic books.

Following the events of the Darkseid War, Wonder Woman is told by the dying Myrina Black that on the night of Diana's birth, Hippolyta gave birth to a twin brother who was born after her. This child was revealed to be male, known as Jason, and is said to be incredibly powerful. Wonder Woman makes it her mission to find him. [159] At the same time, she finds the truth behind her origin and history is now cluttered, as she remembers two versions: the pre-Flashpoint one, and the New 52 rendition. She cannot locate Themiscyra or her fellow Amazons and the Lasso of Truth does not work for her anymore.

The "Year One" storyline retells Diana's origin growing up on Themyscira. She lives an idyllic life and harbors interest for the outside world, and the first connection to it comes in the form of Steve Trevor, who crashes on the island and is the sole survivor. A contest is held to determine which Amazon is the best candidate to take Steve home, with Diana volunteering despite knowing the cost to leave the island is to never return. Diana wins the contest and departs with Steve. Once arriving in America, Diana is taken into custody by the government to discern her origins. She meets Etta Candy and Barbara Ann Minerva along the way. While incarcerated, Diana is visited by the gods in animal form and they bestow upon her powers of strength, speed, agility, durability, and flight. She discovers Ares, the god of war, is working to destroy humanity. Accepting her new role in Man's World, Diana, with the help of the gods in animal form, subdues Ares with the lasso. Now called Wonder Woman, Diana becomes one of the world's greatest heroes.

The "Lies" story arc runs parallel with and explores Diana's search. No longer able to get into Mount Olympus, Diana tracks down Barbara Ann Minerva, the Cheetah, to get help. [160] [161] Cheetah agrees to help in exchange for Diana aiding her in killing the god Urzkartaga and ending Minerva's curse. The pair battle their way through Urzkartaga's minions, the Bouda, and defeat Andres Cadulo, a worshiper of Urzkartaga that planned to sacrifice Steve Trevor to the plant god. Once reverted to her human form, Minerva agreed to help Wonder Woman find her way back to Paradise Island. During this time, Wonder Woman reconnects with Steve. Minerva eventually realizes Paradise Island is an embodiment of emotion instead of a physical place, so Wonder Woman and Steve head out to find the island. They succeed and Wonder Woman is greeted by her mother and sisters, though Steve senses something is wrong. Wonder Woman comes to realize nothing is as she remembers and, upon using the Lasso of Truth, discovers everything she thought she knew was a lie: she never really returned to Themyscira after departing with Steve years earlier. The revelation shatters Diana's mind and she is left nearly insane. Veronica Cale, a businesswoman who has been desiring to find Themyscira and the leader of Godwatch, sends a military group called Poison after her, but Diana's state has left her vulnerable and oblivious to the danger she and Steve are in. Steve wards them off long enough for them to be rescued, and reluctantly places Diana in a mental hospital so she can get help. While there, she comes to grasp the reality she thought she knew was false, eventually coming out of her stupor and able to rejoin the others in tracking down Veronica Cale, who is trying to find Themyscira.

In the "Watchmen" sequel "Doomsday Clock," Doctor Poison attended the meeting established by the Riddler and mentioned a rumor that Wonder Woman was forcefully dragged back to Themyscira by her fellow Amazons. [162] Wonder Woman comes out of hiding to address the United Nations, hoping to defuse the metahuman arms race. However, the summit is interrupted by Black Adam, the Creeper, and Giganta, who take advantage of the absence of most of Earth's superheroes to attack the UN at the time when the superheroes were confronting Doctor Manhattan on Mars. [163]

Powers and training Edit

Diana is depicted as a masterful athlete, acrobat, fighter and strategist, trained and experienced in many ancient and modern forms of armed and unarmed combat, including exclusive Amazonian martial arts. With her godlike abilities of incalculable superhuman strength, nigh-invulnerability, speed, flight, fast healing and semi-immortality, Diana's fighting prowess is enhanced. In some versions, her mother trained her, as Wonder Girl, for a future career as Wonder Woman. From the beginning, she is portrayed as highly skilled in using her Amazon bracelets to stop bullets and in wielding her golden lasso. [164] Batman once called her the "best melee fighter in the world". [165] The modern version of the character is known to use lethal force when she deems it necessary. [63] In the New 52 continuity, her superior combat skills are the result of her Amazon training, as well as receiving further training from Ares, the God of War, himself, since as early as her childhood. [147] The Golden Age Wonder Woman also had knowledge in psychology, as did her Amazon sisters. [166] [167]

Pre-Crisis Edit

The Golden Age Wonder Woman had strength that was comparable to the Golden Age Superman. Wonder Woman was capable of bench pressing 15,000 pounds even before she had received her bracelets, and later hoisted a 50,000 pound boulder above her head to inspire Amazons facing the test. [168] Even when her super strength was temporarily nullified, she still had enough mortal strength of an Amazon to break down a prison door to save Steve Trevor. [169] In one of her earliest appearances, she is shown running easily at 60 mph (97 km/h), and later jumps from a building [ clarification needed ] and lands on the balls of her feet. [170]

She was able to heal faster than a normal human being due to her birthright consumption of water from Paradise Island's Fountain of Eternal Youth.

Her strength would be removed in accordance with "Aphrodite's Law" if she allowed her bracelets to be bound or chained by a male. [171]

She also had an array of mental and psychic abilities, as corresponding to Marston's interest in parapsychology and metaphysics. Such an array included ESP, astral projection, telepathy (with or without the Mental Radio), mental control over the electricity in her body, the Amazonian ability to turn brain energy into muscle power, etc. [172] Wonder Woman first became immune to electric shocks after having her spirit stripped from her atoms by Dr. Psycho's Electro Atomizer it was also discovered that she was unable to send a mental radio message without her body. [173]

Wonder Woman (vol. 1) #105 revealed that Diana was formed from clay by the Queen of the Amazons, given life and power by four of the Greek and Roman gods (otherwise known as the Olympian deities) as gifts, corresponding to her renowned epithet: "Beautiful as Aphrodite, wise as Athena, swifter than Hermes, and stronger than Hercules", making her the strongest of the Amazons. [34] Wonder Woman's Amazon training gave her limited telepathy, profound scientific knowledge, [34] and the ability to speak every language – even caveman [34] and Martian languages. [174]

Between 1966 and 1967, new powers were added, such as super breath. [175]

In the Silver and Bronze Ages of comics, Wonder Woman was able to further increase her strength. In times of great need, removing her bracelets would temporarily augment her power tenfold, but cause her to go berserk in the process. [176] [177]

These powers received changes after the events of Crisis on Infinite Earths.

Post-Crisis Edit

In the Post-Crisis universe, Wonder Woman receives her super powers as a blessing from Olympian deities just like the Silver Age version before, but with changes to some of her powers: [178]

    , the goddess of agriculture and fertility, blessed Diana with strength drawn from the Earth spirit Gaea, making her one of the physically strongest heroes in the DC Universe and the strongest female hero in the DC Universe. This strength has allowed her to easily overwhelm Superman and Supergirl. She has also held her own against Darkseid. Her strength has no measurable limits and she can break the Chronus Scepter, which is universal in its destructive power. However, now Diana is the daughter of Zeus, king of the Greek Gods, so it is unclear as to how much of her power and strength is a direct result of her divine heritage. [179] Her connection to the earth allows her to heal at an accelerated rate so long as she is in contact with the planet. In rare cases where she has been gravely injured, Diana showed the ability to physically merge with the earth, causing whatever injuries or poisons to be expelled from her body such an act is considered sacred, and can only be used in extreme cases. [180] , the goddess of wisdom and war, granted Diana great wisdom, intelligence, and military prowess. Athena's gift has enabled Diana to master over a dozen languages (including those of alien origin), multiple complex crafts, sciences and philosophies, as well as leadership, military strategy, and armed and unarmed combat. More recently, Athena bound her own eyesight to Diana's, granting her increased empathy. [181] , goddess of the hunt, animals, and the Moon, graced Diana with the Eyes of the Hunter and unity with beasts, meaning Diana can communicate with all animals, including dinosaurs. The Eyes of the Hunter ability gives Diana a full range of enhanced senses, including telescopic vision and super hearing. , goddess of hearth and home, granted Diana sisterhood with fire. This power has been shown to control the "Fires of Truth", which Diana wields through her lasso, making anyone bound by it unable to lie. [182] This ability also grants her resistance to both normal and supernatural fire. , the messenger god of speed, granted Diana superhuman speed and the ability to fly. [182] She is capable of flying at speeds approaching half the speed of light. [180] She can react quickly enough to deflect bullets, lasers, and other projectiles with her virtually impenetrable bracelets. After the 2011 relaunch of the character, Wonder Woman does not naturally possess the power of flight. She gains it once she is hit by a feather thrown by Hermes. [183][184] [better source needed] , goddess of love, bestowed Diana with stunning beauty, as well as a kind heart.

While not completely invulnerable, she is highly resistant to great amounts of concussive force and extreme temperatures. However, edged weapons or projectiles applied with sufficient force are able to pierce her skin. [180] [185] Due to her divine origins, Diana can resist many forms of magical manipulation.

She is able to astrally project herself into various lands of myth. Her physical body reacts to whatever happens to her on the mythical astral plane, leaving her body cut, bruised, or sometimes strengthened once her mind and body are reunited. She can apparently leave the planet through meditation and did this once to rescue Artemis while she was in Hell. [186]

The New 52 Edit

After the 2011 relaunch, Diana gained new powers. These new abilities, which included superhuman speed, durability, immortality, accelerated healing, and even flight came in addition to her previous attributed Olympian strength. She is now considered to be stronger than Hercules. In addition to her weaponry, Diana's bracelets can now create a thunderous explosion or expel lightning when she clashes them together. Diana can also manipulate lightning and create weapons out of lightning bolts. These new abilities are attributed to being the daughter of Hippolyta and Zeus. Her powers are now considered nearly unmeasurable if she goes without her Bracelets of Submission, which keep her demigod powers in check. She uses these powers in battle against the goddess Artemis and quickly renders her unconscious with ease with a series of carefully positioned counterattacks. While using her godly powers, her outfit and accoutrements lit up and her eyes glowed like her father's. [184] [187] [ better source needed ] [188]

After becoming the God of War in the pages of Wonder Woman, Diana inherits Ares's divine abilities. Diana has not exhibited her full powers as War, but is seen in Superman/Wonder Woman #8 to slip easily into telepathic rapport with a soldier, explaining "I am War. I know all soldiers, and they know me."

DC Rebirth Edit

Following the Rebirth retcon, the "Year One" storyline explains that while put in a cell after coming to Man's World, Diana was visited by the Greek gods in animal form. Each gave her powers that would reveal themselves when she needed them to. She first displays strength when she accidentally rips the bars off her cell door when visited by Steve Trevor, Etta Candy, and Barbara Ann Minerva. Later on a trip to the mall, she discovers super speed, great durability, and the power of flight while fighting off a terrorist attack.

Wonder Woman is also immortal and doesn't age beyond prime.

DC Universe Edit

DC Comics ended the Rebirth branding in December 2017, opting to include everything under a larger "DC Universe" banner and naming. The continuity established by Rebirth continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume five of Wonder Woman. [189] [190]

Technology Edit

Diana is an incredible scientist and physician in addition to her athleticism. She has an arsenal of powerful god-forged gear at her disposal, but her signature equipment are her indestructible bracelets and the Lasso of Truth.

Costume and armor Edit

Wonder Woman's outfit has varied over time, although almost all of her outfit incarnations have retained some form of red chestplate, blue subligaculum, golden tiara, bracelets, and her signature five-pointed star symbols. When Wonder Woman was first introduced, she wore a heavily patriotic skirt and red top which incorporated an American eagle and elements of the United States flag, reflecting the comic's origins during World War II.

Later artists introduced what would become Wonder Woman's classic ensemble, adding an armored plate to her top whose design recalls a letter W and revealing blue short shorts, whose precise length varied from artist to artist. Other artists have experimented with different looks for Wonder Woman over the years, including an all-white mod jumpsuit, a biker outfit, a variation of her mainstream depiction featuring leather pants and a jacket, and a number of armoured battlesuits. Contemporary artists have attempted to emphasise Wonder Woman's traditional outfit as a red armored top with a blue gladiator skirt.

Golden Age Edit

Wonder Woman's outfit design was originally rooted in American symbolism and iconography, which included her signature star symbols, a golden eagle on her chest, crimson red bustier, white belt, and a dark blue star spangled skirt/culotte.

She also had a pair of red glowing magnetic earrings which allowed her to receive messages from Queen Desira of the planet Venus.

Pre-Crisis Edit

At the time of her debut, Wonder Woman sported a red top with a golden eagle emblem, a white belt, blue star-spangled culottes, and red and golden go-go boots. She originally wore a skirt however according to Elizabeth Martson, "It was too hard to draw and would have been over her head most of the time." [187] This outfit was entirely based on the American flag, because Wonder Woman was purely an American icon as she debuted during World War II. [191] Later in 1942, Wonder Woman's outfit received a slight change – the culottes were converted entirely into skin-tight shorts and she wore sandals. [191] While earlier most of her back was exposed, during the imposition of the Comics Code Authority in the mid-1950s, Wonder Woman's outfit was rectified to make her back substantially covered, in order to comply with the Authority's rule of minimum exposure. [191] During Mike Sekowsky's run in the late 1960s, Diana surrendered her powers and started using her own skills to fight crime. She wore a series of jumpsuits as her attire the most popular of these was a white one. [191]

After Sekowsky's run ended in the early 1970s, Diana's roots were reverted to her old mythological ones and she wore a more modernized version of her original outfit, a predecessor to her "bathing suit" outfit. [191] Later, in 1976, her glowing white belt was turned into a yellow one. [191] For Series 3, artist Terry Dodson redrew her outfit as a strapless swimsuit. [192]

Perhaps the first-ever retrospective of Wonder Woman's costume changes was offered in Issue #211, cover-dated April-May 1974, on page 52 which details the changes in her costume from her 1) initial very briefly-lasting one with culottes, or perhaps more specifically, a skort, to 2) the "hot-pants" style costume which would last through the rest of the golden-age years and through much of the 1950s, to 3) the sandaled-look of the late 1950s to mid 1960s, to 4) her plain-clothes civilian look the character adopted during the timeframe of late 1968 to the end of 1972 when the character was without her superpowers, to 5) the slightly-modified-from-the-golden-age costume she returned to when her superpowers were restored in 1973. [193]

Bronze Age Edit

It was late in the Bronze Age, however, when what is probably the single-most-significant change in the iconography of Wonder Woman's costume occurred. Occurring perhaps exactly 40 years after the character's Winter 1941 debut, in DC Comics Presents, issue 41, cover-dated January 1982, (in-between the continuities of issues #287, cover-dated December 1981, and #288, cover-dated January 1982, of the regular Wonder Woman series), on page 7 of the special Wonder Woman insert, a character simply identifed as "Liz" on the previous page, who states that she is a representative of an organization called the 'Wonder Woman Foundation' explains "We've been promised full financial backing to promote equality for women everywhere, if we can use your name. and if you'll just wear this charming top from now on, instead of your old one!" [194]

This character Liz then gives Wonder Woman the new breastplate on which a 'double-W' design replaces the eagle design on the previous breastplate which had gone unchanged for the first 40 years of the character's existence. Later in this story on page 14, Wonder Woman's mother, Queen Hippolyta of the Amazons, advises her to ". wear the new halter for a time, at least, for the good it will do." to which Wonder Woman agrees by saying "Wait! I just realized. you're right! The cause will make the 'W' stand not just for 'Wonder Woman'. but for women everywhere". [195] Since this change, for over 30 years, the 'double-W' breastplate design remained a near-constant, with exceptions such as the various Elseworlds alternate storylines and other innovations which occur outside of the regular series.

Post-Crisis Edit

After Crisis on Infinite Earths, George Pérez rebooted the character in 1987. She wore an outfit similar to her 1970s one, but now with a larger glowing golden belt. [191] This outfit continued until William Messner-Loebs' run, which had Diana pass on the role of Wonder Woman to Artemis. [191] No longer Wonder Woman, Diana sported a new black biker-girl outfit designed by artist Mike Deodato Jr. [191] After John Byrne took over writing and art duties, he redesigned the Wonder Woman outfit (Diana was reinstated as Wonder Woman at the end of Loebs' run) and joined the emblem and belt together. [191]

Her outfit did not receive any prominent change until after the 2005–2006 Infinite Crisis storyline. Similar to her chestplate, her glowing belt was also shaped into a "W". [191] This outfit continued until issue #600 – J. Michael Straczynski's run of Wonder Woman's altered timeline changed her outfit drastically. Her outfit was redesigned by Jim Lee and included a redesigned emblem, a golden and red top, black pants, and a later discontinued blue-black jacket. [191]

It was later retconned by Gail Simone that Wonder Woman's outfit design had Amazonian roots. During a flashback in Vol. 3, Hippolyta is shown issuing orders to have a garment created for Diana, taking inspiration from the skies on the night Diana was born a red hunter's moon and a field of stars against deep blue, and the eagle breastplate being a symbol of Athena's avian representations. [ volume & issue needed ]

The New 52 Edit

Another major outfit change for Wonder Woman came about as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of its entire line of publications, The New 52. The character's original one-piece outfit was restored, although the color combination of red and blue was changed to dark red and blue-black. Her chest-plate, belt and tiara were also changed from gold to a platinum or sterling silver color. Along with her sword, she now also utilizes a shield. She wears many accessories such as arm and neck jewelry styled as the "WW" motif. Her outfit is no longer made of fabric, as it now resembles a type of light, flexible body armor. Her boots are now a very dark blue rather than red. The design previously included black trousers, but they were removed and the one-piece look was restored during the time of publication. [196]

After the events of the 2015 storyline Convergence, Diana gets a new armored suit with the classic armor and tiara returning. [ volume & issue needed ]

DC Universe Edit

Following the 2016 DC Rebirth continuity relaunch, Wonder Woman's outfit was redesigned to resemble the one worn in the film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. This outfit is a red bustier with a gold eagle, a blue leather skirt with gold edges with two stars, and knee-high red boots with gold knee guards and accents. Her tiara once again is gold with a red star. She occasionally wears a red cape with a gold clasp and edges. [ volume & issue needed ] She continues to wear this updated outfit in DC Universe, the continuity established after Rebirth.

Wonder Woman (2017 film) Edit

Her tiara's signature star symbol is now an eight pointed starburst. According to designer Lindy Hemming and director Patty Jenkins, every design decision made for Themyscira came down to the same question: "How would I want to live that's badass?" [197] "To me, they shouldn't be dressed in armor like men. It should be different. It should be authentic and real . and appealing to women." When asked about the decision to give the Amazons heeled sandals, Jenkins explained that they also have flats for fighting, adding "It's total wish-fulfillment . I, as a woman, want Wonder Woman to be sexy, hot as hell, fight badass, and look great at the same time . the same way men want Superman to have ridiculously huge pecs and an impractically big body. That makes them feel like the hero they want to be. And my hero, in my head, has really long legs." [198] This corresponds to the original intent by William Moulton Marston, who wanted his character to be alluringly feminine.

Invisible Plane Edit

The Golden, Silver, and Bronze Age portrayals of Wonder Woman showed her using a silent and invisible plane that could be controlled by mental command [199] and fly at speeds up to 3,000 mph (4,800 km/h). [200] Its appearance has varied over time originally it had a propeller, while later it was drawn as a jet aircraft resembling a stealth aircraft. [201] The Invisible Plane was originally a necessity because Wonder Woman could not fly until the Crisis on Infinite Earths rewrote the character's history. She grew increasingly powerful during and after the Silver Age, acquiring the power to ride wind currents and imitate flight over short distances.

Created by Diana herself, the Invisible Plane appeared in the earliest comic stories, including All-Star Comics #8, where it is shown as being able to fly at over 2,000 mph (3,200 km/h) and to send out rainbow rays that penetrate the mist around Paradise Island, as well as landing stealthily and having a built-in radio. Wonder Woman is seen storing the plane in a barn at an abandoned farm near Washington, D.C., where she goes as Lt. Prince and changes clothes in some of the earliest tales. In a story published shortly after, the plane flies at 40 miles (64 km) a second. [ citation needed ] Shortly thereafter, Wonder Woman is shown being able to summon it with her tiara, have it hover by the War Department, and extend from it a rope ladder with which she could board it. She uses the plane to fly into outer space, and frequently transports Etta Candy and the Holliday Girls, Steve Trevor, and others. During the 1950s, the plane becomes a jet, and is often shown swooping over Lt. Prince's office she strips out of her uniform at super speed and bounds to the plane. Though the plane was depicted as semi-transparent for the reader's convenience, in-story dialogue indicated that it actually was completely invisible, or at least able to become so as the need arose. [202] Wonder Woman continued to use the Invisible Plane for super speed, outer space, and multi-dimensional transport up until the unpowered era of Diana Prince. When Wonder Woman resumed superpowered, costumed operations in 1973, she continued to use the jet as before, but did glide on air currents for short distances. At one point, Aphrodite granted the plane the power to fly faster than the speed of light for any interstellar voyages her champion might undertake. [203] Thanks to tinkering by gremlins, the Plane even developed intelligence and the power to talk. [204] The plane proved a good friend, eager to help his "mistress" and her loved ones in any way possible. It got along especially well with Steve Trevor. [ citation needed ]

Bracelets of Submission Edit

Diana's bulletproof bracelets were formed from the remnants of Athena's legendary shield, the Aegis, to be awarded to her champion. The shield was made from the indestructible hide of the great she-goat, Amalthea, who suckled Zeus as an infant. These forearm guards have thus far proven NIGH-indestructible (the Omega Beams of Grail have proven able to shatter them), and are able to absorb the impact of incoming attacks, allowing Wonder Woman to deflect automatic weapon fire and energy blasts. [206] Diana can slam the bracelets together to create a wave of concussive force capable of making strong beings like Superman's ears bleed. [63] Recently, she gained the ability to channel Zeus's lightning through her bracelets as well. Zeus explained to her that this power had been contained within the bracelets since their creation, because they were once part of the Aegis, and that he had only recently unlocked it for her use. [207] After the 2011 relaunch of the character, it was revealed that Diana was the daughter of Zeus and Hippolyta [135] and that the bracelets are able to keep the powers she had inherited from Zeus in check. [187] In addition, Hephaestus has modified the bracelets to allow Wonder Woman the sorcerous ability to manifest a sword of grayish metal from each bracelet. Each sword, marked with a red star, takes shape from a flash of lightning, and when Wonder Woman is done with them, the swords disappear, supposedly, back into her bracelets. As such, she has produced other weapons from the bracelets in this way such as a bow that fires explosive arrows, spears and energy bolts among others. [208]

The inspiration to give Diana bracelets came from the pair of bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, creator William Moulton Marston's research assistant and lover. [6] "Wonder Woman and her sister Amazons have to wear heavy bracelets to remind them of what happens to a girl when she lets a man conquer her," quoted Marston in a 1942 interview. "The Amazons once surrendered to the charm of some handsom Greeks and what a mess they got themselves into. The Greeks put them in chains of the Hitler type, beat them, and made them work like horses in the fields. Aphrodite, goddess of love, finally freed these unhappy girls. But she laid down the rule ("Aphrodite's Law") that they must never surrender to a man for any reason. I know of no better advice to give modern day women than this rule that Aphrodite gave the Amazon girls." [209]

Lasso of Truth Edit

The Lasso of Truth, or Lasso of Hestia, was forged by Hephaestus from the golden girdle of Gaea. [182] The original form of the Lasso in the Golden Age was called the Magic Lasso of Aphrodite. It compels all beings who come into contact with it to tell the absolute truth and is virtually indestructible [182] in Identity Crisis, Green Arrow mistakenly describes it as "the only lie detector designed by Zeus." The only times it has been broken were when Wonder Woman herself refused to accept the truth revealed by the lasso, such as when she confronted Rama Khan of Jarhanpur, [210] and by Bizarro in Matt Wagner's non-canonical Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity. [211] During the Golden Age, the original form of the Lasso had the power to force anyone caught to obey any command given them, even overriding the mind control of others this was effective enough to defeat strong-willed beings like Captain Marvel. [212] Diana wields the Lasso with great precision and accuracy and can use it as a whip or noose.

Other items Edit

During the Golden Age, Wonder Woman possessed a Purple Ray capable of healing even a fatal gunshot wound to the brain. [213] She invented the ray herself in order to heal Steve Trevor from injuries he sustained when his plane was shot down and he was left adrift in the sea for days. [213] After the storyline Crisis on Infinite Earths, the creation of the Purple Ray was attributed to the Baroness Paula von Gunther. [ volume & issue needed ]

Diana occasionally uses additional weaponry in formal battle, such as ceremonial golden armour with golden wings, pteruges, chestplate, and golden helmet in the shape of an eagle's head. She possesses a magical sword forged by Hephaestus that is sharp enough to cut the electrons off an atom. [182] As early as the 1950s, [214] Wonder Woman's tiara has also been used as a razor-edged throwing weapon, returning to her like a boomerang. [182] The tiara allows Wonder Woman to be invulnerable from telepathic attacks, as well as allowing her to telepathically contact people such as the Amazons back on Themyscira using the power of the red star ruby in its center. [63] As a temporary inductee into the Star Sapphires, Wonder Woman gained access to the violet power ring of love. This ring allowed her to alter her costume at will, create solid-light energy constructs, and reveal a person's true love to them. She was able to combine the energy with her lasso to enhance its ability. [ citation needed ] She also possessed a Mental Radio that could let her receive messages from those in need. [199]

In other media Edit

Since her comic book debut in October 1941, Wonder Woman has appeared in a number of adaptations. These formats include films, television shows, and video games.

In the fine arts, and starting with the Pop Art period and on a continuing basis since the 1960s, the character has been "appropriated" by multiple visual artists and incorporated into contemporary artwork, most notably by Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Mel Ramos, Dulce Pinzon, Houben R.T. and others. [215] [216] [217] [218]

Television Edit

Wonder Woman has made multiple appearances in television, including the made-for-television film Wonder Woman (1974), and most notably Hanna-Barbera's long-running animated series Super Friends as well as the 1970s live-action show Wonder Woman.

A pilot was filmed in 2011 starring Adrianne Palicki [219] but never aired.

In the show DC Super Hero Girls, Wonder Woman is a student. She is a friend of Batgirl, Killer Frost, Hawkgirl, Big Barda, Miss Martian, Beast Boy, Supergirl, Harley Quinn, Poison Ivy, Katana, and is the best friend of Bumblebee. She is an enemy of Cheetah, Lena Luthor, and Giganta.

Film Edit

The character has been featured in direct-to-video animated films and CGI theatrical releases, such as The Lego Movie (2014). Within the live-action DC Extended Universe (DCEU) films, Wonder Woman debuted in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016) and was featured as the main character in Wonder Woman (2017) and its sequel Wonder Woman 1984 (2020), as well as the DCEU release Justice League (2017).

The 2017 film Professor Marston and the Wonder Women tells the story of the polyamorous relationship between William Moulton Marston, his wife and fellow psychologist Elizabeth Holloway Marston, and their lover Olive Byrne, the invention of the lie detector test, and how they inspired the creation of the Wonder Woman comic. [220]

Literature Edit

Critical reception and legacy Edit

Although created to be a positive role-model and a strong female character for girls and boys, [221] Wonder Woman has had to deal with the misogyny that was commonplace in comic book industry for decades. For example, Wonder Woman was a founding member of the Justice Society of America. This roster included the original Flash and Green Lantern. Wonder Woman was an experienced leader and easily the most powerful of them all, yet was rendered a secretary. This would also be accompanied with her losing her powers or getting captured on most Justice League adventures. During the 1950s and 1960s, comic writers regularly made Wonder Woman lovesick over Steve Trevor, a Major in the United States Army. Stories frequently featured Wonder Woman hoping or imagining what it would be like to marry Steve Trevor.

In the controversial Seduction of the Innocent, psychiatrist Fredric Wertham claimed Wonder Woman's strength and independence made her a lesbian in a condemning way. [222]

Wonder Woman was named the 20th greatest comic book character by Empire film magazine. [223] She was ranked sixth in Comics Buyer's Guide ' s "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list. [224] In May 2011, Wonder Woman placed fifth on IGN ' s Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time. [225]

Feminist icon Edit

Feminist icon Gloria Steinem, founder of Ms. magazine, was responsible for the return of Wonder Woman's original abilities. Offended that the most famous female superhero had been depowered into a boyfriend-obsessed damsel in distress, Steinem placed Wonder Woman (in costume) on the cover of the first issue of Ms. (1972) – Warner Communications, DC Comics' owner, was an investor – which also contained an appreciative essay about the character. [226] Wonder Woman's powers and traditional costume were restored in issue #204 (January–February 1973). [226]

In 1972, just months after the groundbreaking US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, science fiction author Samuel R. Delany had planned a story for Ms. that culminated in a plainclothes Wonder Woman protecting an abortion clinic. However, Steinem disapproved of Wonder Woman being out of costume, and the controversial story line never happened. [227]

The original significance of Wonder Woman had the intentions of influencing many women of all ages, displaying the physical and mental strengths, values, and ethical attributes that not only men acquire. "Wonder Woman symbolizes many of the values of the women's culture that feminists are now trying to introduce into the mainstream: strength and self-reliance for women sisterhood and mutual support among women peacefulness and esteem for human life a diminishment both of 'masculine' aggression and of the belief that violence is the only way of solving conflicts," Steinem wrote at the time. [228]

Carolyn Cocca has stated that Wonder Woman possesses a "duality of character" due to the character possessing both feminine and masculine qualities in her physical abilities and attitude, which Cocca felt made her more appealing to a wide audience. [229] Wonder Woman's first female editor, Karen Berger, claimed that, "Wonder Woman [is] a great role model to young women, but also contains many elements that appeal to males as well. Wonder Woman crosses the gender line.". [229] Berger worked with George Pérez on the new issues of Wonder Woman starting in 1987, and the new Diana "works with friends and allies to teach lessons of peace and equality." [230]

The origin of Wonder Woman and the psychological reasoning behind why William Morton Marston created her in the way he did illustrated Marston's educational, ethical, and moral values. [231] "William Marston intended her to be a feminist character, showing young boys the illimitable possibilities of a woman who could be considered just as strong as the famed Superman." Gladys L. Knight explains the impact and influences that superheroes have on us in society ranging from the 1870s until the present day.

Marc DiPaolo introduces us to Wonder Woman's creator and history and he demonstrates how she is a "WWII veteran, a feminist icon, and a sex symbol" all throughout her "career". Wonder Woman stars in multiple films and is most commonly known for her red, white and blue one piece, and her tall, sexy assertiveness. What many people don't know is that she is a big part of history in the comic and superhero world because of how her character influences real life people of all ages, sexes, ethnicities, and races. "Marston created the comic book character Wonder Woman to be both strong and sexy, as a means of encouraging woman to emulate her unapologetic assertiveness." [232] Charlotte Howell notes in her essay titled "'Tricky' Connotations: Wonder Woman as DC's Brand Disruptor" that Wonder Woman is, "inherently disruptive to masculine superhero franchise branding because, according to her creator William Moulton Marston, she was intended to be 'psychological propaganda for the new type of woman who, [he] believe[d], should rule the world.'" [233]

In 2015, continuing her legacy as an influential feminist icon, Wonder Woman became the first superhero to officiate a same-sex wedding in a comic series. [234] [235]

On October 21, 2016, the United Nations controversially named Wonder Woman a UN Honorary Ambassador for the Empowerment of Women and Girls in a ceremony attended by Under-Secretary-General for Communications and Public Information Cristina Gallach and by actors Lynda Carter and Gal Gadot. [236] [237] The character was dropped from the role two months later after a petition against the appointment stated Wonder Woman was "not culturally. sensitive" and it was "alarming that the United Nations would consider using a character with an overtly sexualized image". [238]

After the release of the 2017 film Wonder Woman, many bloggers noted what they felt made Wonder Woman a feminist icon in the film. Zoe Williams for The Guardian said, "Yes, she is sort of naked a lot of the time, but this isn't objectification so much as a cultural reset: having thighs, actual thighs you can kick things with, not thighs that look like arms, is a feminist act. The whole Diana myth, women safeguarding the world from male violence not with nurture but with better violence, is a feminist act. Casting Robin Wright as Wonder Woman's aunt, re-imagining the battle-axe as a battler with an axe, is a feminist act. A female German chemist trying to destroy humans (in the shape of Dr Poison, a proto-Mengele before Nazism existed) might be the most feminist act of all." [239] Alyssa Rosenberg for The Washington Post said, ". None of these experiences crushed me, of course, but I do wonder what it might have been like if they hadn't happened.The power of Wonder Woman, and one of the things that gives Jenkins's adaptation of the character such a lift, is in the answer to that question. Diana Prince (Gal Gadot) doesn't have any idea what women and men are — or aren't — supposed to do. Even when she does encounter other people's ideas about gender roles, she doesn't automatically accept them, and she never lets anyone stop her. And the movie goes a step further and argues that it's not merely little girls all over the world who stand to gain if they can grow up free of the distorting influence of misogyny: a world like that would be liberating and wonderful for men in lots of ways, too." [240] Emma Gray for HuffPost said, "When it comes to pop culture, we speak often about representation the simple yet often unfulfilled idea that it matters to see someone like you fill a variety of imagined roles on screen. After awhile, these conversations almost begin to feel obvious. We know that it's good to see women and people of color and disabled people and trans people and queer people in the same numbers and variety of roles that white, cisgender, straight men have long been afforded. But what these discussions often lose is the emotional impact of finally seeing something you may have never even realized you were missing. For many women viewers, "Wonder Woman" filled a hole they didn't know they had." [241]

Pacifist icon Edit

Gloria Steinem, editor for Ms. magazine and a major supporter of Wonder Woman, stated ". [Marston] had invented Wonder Woman as a heroine for little girls, and also as a conscious alternative to the violence of comic books for boys." [242] Badower described a near-international incident (involving an unnamed Russian general rolling dozens of tanks and munitions through a shady mountain pass) as an outstanding example for standing up to bullies. "She ends up deflecting a bullet back and disarming the general," he says, adding that "she doesn't actually do anything violent in the story. I just think that Wonder Woman is smarter than that." [243]

Nick Pumphrey stated that Wonder Woman stands as a non-violent beacon of hope and inspiration for women and men. [244] [245] Grant Morrison stated "I sat down and I thought, 'I don't want to do this warrior woman thing.' I can understand why they're doing it, I get all that, but that's not what [Wonder Woman creator] William Marston wanted, that's not what he wanted at all! His original concept for Wonder Woman was an answer to comics that he thought were filled with images of blood-curdling masculinity, and you see the latest shots of Gal Gadot in the costume, and it's all sword and shield and her snarling at the camera. Marston's Diana was a doctor, a healer, a scientist." [246] [247] [248] [249] [250]

Paquette detailed the changes he made to Wonder Woman's costume, stating that he removed the iconic American flag theme and instead incorporated a Greek influence: "The animal associated to Aphrodite is a dove so instead of an eagle on [Wonder Woman's] breastplate, it will be more of a dove. It's not the American eagle, it's the Aphrodite dove. Stuff that creates [the letter] W is by accident, so it's not like she already has a letter of the alphabet on her [costume]. In the end I've created a structure so it feels inevitable for Wonder Woman to look the way she does." [251]

LGBT icon Edit

William Marston's earliest works were notorious for containing subversive "bondage and sapphic-undertones" subtext. Among Wonder Women's infamous catchphrases, "Suffering Sappho", was a direct reference to lesbianism. Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent referred to her as the "lesbian counterpart to Batman" (whom he also identified as a homosexual). After Marston's death in 1947, DC Comics downplayed her sexuality and feminist origin. Wonder Women, without Marston's creative direction, become more "traditional" superhero fare the lesbian relationships and sexual imagery disappeared from the "Wonder Woman" comic, along with Wonder Woman's super powers. During the Comics Code Authority-decades since, Wonder Woman's subversiveness had been gradually stripped away subsequent comic book writers and artists either didn't know what do with her or barely hinted at Wonder Woman's erotic legacy. [11]

But under the new 1987 re-boot of the title, under the editorship of Karen Berger, and with the writing and art of George Perez at the helm of the book, the same-sex appreciation by Wonder Woman and the Amazons was more than hinted-at and this was established quickly in the new run of the title. Upon her first sight of supporting character Vanessa Kapatelis (in issue #3), she is shown smiling upwards at Kapatelis, thinking to herself "I've never seen another woman quite like her. she's so young. so vulnerable. so beautiful. " [252] Three years later, in the first issue (#38) of a new decade, there is a story-line presenting a cultural exchange between appointed leaders from 'Man's World', who are the first mortals to visit Themyscira in this continuity, and the Amazons of Themyscira, in Themyscira, itself. The guest Unitarian minister, Reverend Cantwell, asks the Amazon Mnemosyne ". "Don't you miss the sharing God intended for the sexes?" to which Mnemosyne replied "Some do. They have sworn themselves to Artemis, the virgin hunter, and Athena, the chaste warrior. Others choose the way of Narcissus. But most of us find satisfaction in each other -- three thousand years can be a long time, reverend.". [253] Probably more than at any other time in the then nearly fifty-year history of the character, the Amazons were explicitly and unequivocally defined, in general, as lesbian. Additionally, Kevin Mayer, brother of the major supporting character Myndi Mayer, was openly gay and this was treated sympathetically. [254] By this time, DC Comics was a Warner Brothers-owned company, and had been for over 20 years.

Wonder Woman is suggested as being queer [255] or bisexual, as she and another Amazon, Io, had reciprocal feelings for each other. [256] Grant Morrison's 2016 comic Wonder Woman: Earth One, which exists parallel to the current DC comics Rebirth canon, Diana is depicted being kissed on her right cheek by a blonde woman who has put her left arm around Diana. [257]

In 2016, "Issue #48" of Sensation Comics, featured Wonder Woman officiating a same-sex wedding, drawn by Australian illustrator Jason Badower. "My country is all women. To us, it's not 'gay' marriage. It's just marriage", she states to Superman. Inspired by the 2015 June Supreme Court ruling that established same-sex marriage in all 50 United States, Badower says DC Comics was "fantastic" about his idea for the issue. In an interview with The Sydney Morning Herald, he said his editor "Was like 'great, I love it! Let's do it.' It was almost anticlimactic." [258] "Diana's mother, the queen, at the very least authorized or in some cases officiated these weddings," Badower says. "It just seems more like a royal duty Diana would take on, that she would do for people that would appreciate it." [243]

Wonder Woman actress Gal Gadot reacted positively to Diana's rebooted orientation, and agreed her sexuality was impacted by growing up in the women-only Themyscira. Gadot stated that Wonder Woman feels she need not be "labelled sexually", and is "just herself". "She's a woman who loves people for who they are. She can be bisexual. She loves people for their hearts." [259] [260] Coming from a society that was only populated by women, "'lesbian' in [the world's] eyes may have been 'straight' for them." [261] "Her culture is completely free from the shackles of heteronormativity in the first place so she wouldn't even have any 'concept' of gender roles in sex." [262]

Wonder Woman's advocacy for women rights and gay rights was taken a step further in September 2016, when comic book writer Greg Rucka announced that she is canonically bisexual, according to her rebooted Rebirth origin. [263] [264] Rucka stated, ". nobody at DC Comics has ever said, [Wonder Woman] gotta be straight. Nobody. Ever. They've never blinked at this." [261] Rucka stated that in his opinion, she "has to be" queer and has "obviously" had same-sex relationships on an island surrounded by beautiful women. [265] [266] This follows the way Wonder Woman was written in the alternate continuity or non-canon Earth One by Grant Morrison, [267] and fellow Wonder Woman writer Gail Simone staunchly supported Rucka's statement. [268] Surprised at the amount of backlash from her fanbase, Rucka responded to "haters" that consensual sex with women is just as important to Wonder Woman as the Truth is to Superman. [269]

Sex icon Edit

Wonder Woman's signature weapon was her Lasso of Truth consequently, much of her crime-fighting powers came from bondage, and her only exploitable weakness was, essentially, bondage. Grant Morrison and Yanick Paquette had teamed up to work on Wonder Woman: Earth One. [251] Paquette confirmed that he and Morrison would be bringing back the bondage theme that was popular in Wonder Woman comics during the 1940s. However, he stated that Morrison was looking for a way to not only modernize it, but to use the bondage theme as a form of female empowerment. Paquette acknowledged that Wonder Woman has become more than just a beloved character, she is a symbol for feminism. "By bringing in sex and, yes, bondage, it reasserts [William Moulton Marston's core] idea that it is okay for women to have a healthy sexual appetite." Paquette elaborated more on this by pointing out the blatant double standards in comics when it comes to sex: "Could Wonder Woman really ever have a healthy and active sex life without it becoming political fodder for Fox News? And what of women and girls who want to be like her? Do we truly think they wouldn't be labeled sluts? I have my doubts."

Wonder Woman's sexual and bondage themes in her earliest days were not without purpose, however. Her creator, William Moulton Marston, theorized that human relationships could be broken down into dominance, submission, inducement and compliance roles which were embedded into our psyche. Because males were, more often than not, dominant in societies, Marston believed that "Women as a sex, are many times better equipped to assume emotional leadership than are males." [270] Marston wanted to convey his progressive ideals, through his use of bondage imagery, that women are not only capable of leadership roles, but should be in charge of society. Although Marston had good intentions with these themes, in Wonder Woman's early appearances, the bondage elements were controversial, as they were often seen to overly fetishize women in power rather than promote such women. Noah Berlatsky criticized this imagery in Wonder Woman's earliest days noting that "the comics take sensual pleasure in women’s disempowerment." [271] Despite having the mixed messages of this imagery, Marston fiercely believed that women would soon rule the earth and meant to showcase his predictions through sexual themes in his stories. He was an open feminist while studying at Harvard where he once said "Girls are also human beings, a point often overlooked!" [272]

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Super Gene - Chapter 3161 - The Test of Feng Yin Yin’s Talent

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Chapter 3161 The Test of Feng Yin Yin’s Talent

Feng Fei Fei walked over and told Han Sen, “Mister Han and Fei Fei, I understand your noble intentions, but Little Yin’s sonic talents are exceptional. We still hope she can receive a sonic God Spirit Blood-Pulse.”

Aside from the reason Han Fei Fei pointed out, there was an additional reason that she merely felt bad for suggesting. The God of Wealth Han Sen suggested was something Feng Fei Fei had never of before. Besides the fact it wasn’t one of the 12 Annihilation-class main gods, there wasn’t a God of Wealth amid the famous Disaster God Spirits.

Feng Fei Fei had explored for many years, hoping to find a sonic Annihilation God Spirit Blood-Pulse for Little Yin, but Annihilation God Spirit Blood-Pulses were hard to find.

Even if Feng Yin Yin’s talent tempted the spirits, the 12 Annihilation God Spirits were controlled by the kings of the seven kingdoms. Commoners had no chance of praying for a God Spirit Blood-Pulse.

Among the 12 Annihilation God Spirits, there were only two connected with sonic powers. One was a pure sonic God Spirit, and the other one only had a connection to it.

Feng Fei Fei had been busy on Feng Yin Yin’s behalf. She hoped she would be able to one day have her try inside the pure sonic God Spirit’s temple. It was a shame that the sonic God Spirit was owned by the kings of the Chu Kingdom. Only the royals of the Chu Kingdom could go into that god temple and pray for a Blood Pulse. Feng Fei Fei had tried her best, but she was never successful.

There was still a chance with the other God Spirits, and Feng Fei Fei had left home because of that.

God never answered prayers. For some reason, Feng Fei Fei failed. She had only recently returned. After that, Feng Fei Fei had some ideas. She believed some methods would enable her to have a chance with Feng Yin Yin.

“Auntie, it is fine,” Feng Yin Yin said with a laugh. “The God Spirit San Mu has introduced me to must be good.”

She did not just say that because she trusted Han Sen. She did not want Feng Fei Fei to incur so much trouble on her behalf. Feng Yin Yin knew Feng Fei Fei had suffered a lot because of her tireless search for a God Spirit Blood – Pulse. She had given it a lot of effort.

Feng Fei Fei was one of the most popular singers. To do something this big, she also had to beg a lot of people. She would have probably suffered much in her struggle.

As a result, Feng Yin Yin felt bad for her. Thus, she did not want her to continue suffering on her behalf.

Feng Fei Fei quickly said, “I know the God Spirit Mister Han has suggested cannot be too bad, but your musical talents are more than exceptional. If you earn the element from another God Spirit Blood-Pulse, it will be a waste of your natural gift.”

After hearing Feng Fei Fei say that, Han Sen did not know what to say. He knew Feng Fei Fei’s musical talents were extraordinary. It really was a shame if she was unable to get a sonic God Spirit to capitalize on her talent.

Han Sen also wanted to find a sonic sub-god to be in the God of Wealth Temple, but he did not think he could get that done any time soon. Feng Fei Fei probably wouldn’t believe in an empty promise. Seeing Han Sen not insist any further, Feng Fei Fei felt relieved. She stroked Feng Yin Yin’s head and said, “Don’t worry, Yin Yin. I know where to get you a God Spirit Blood-Pulse. You just need to give me another month and a half, and you will have a God Spirit Blood-Pulse.”

Although Han Sen did not believe her, he did not say anything about it.

Even if Feng Fei Fei did give Feng Yin Yin a chance, she would only get a complete Blood-Pulse. It would not be a Blood-Pulse that could be inherited, so it was not very meaningful.

They were both Annihilation class. God of Wealth, however, was not sonic class. Feng Fei Fei would have a Blood-Pulse that could be inherited. They were very different from each other.

This was something Han Sen could not push. He just needed to convince Feng Fei Fei.

He could not rush it. He needed Feng Yin Yin to go on his side. He could not allow Feng Yin Yin to start obeying other God Spirits.

The next day, Feng Fei Fei was in a rush to go again. Based on her expression, there was an 80% to 90% chance she was going to do something for Feng Yin Yin.

Not long after Feng Fei Fei was gone, Feng Yin Yin ran to Han Sen and seriously asked, “San Mu, can you take me to the God of Wealth Temple?”

“Of course, I can. Don’t you need to confirm this with your auntie? Doesn’t she need to agree?” Han Sen did not want Feng Fei Fei and Feng Yin Yin to fall out with each other because of this.

Han Sen knew that Feng Fei Fei really adored Feng Yin Yin. After all, Feng Yin Yin lost her mother when she very young. Feng Fei Fei was the one who raised her. She was a cousin, but the relationship was more like that of a mother and daughter. “Actually, it is because I do not want auntie to be busy on my behalf. She never tells me, but I know the God Spirit she begs for me is very nice. I like it too, but that god temple belongs to a king of the Qin Kingdom that has a different name. That king with a different surname happens to like Little Auntie. I am afraid…” After saying that, Feng Yin Yin suddenly stopped talking.

Han Sen understood what she meant. He admired Feng Yin Yin’s sensitivity. She was so young, but she saw a lot. It was no wonder she was Xiang Yin reborn.

“OK, I will take you to the God of Wealth Temple,” Han Sen said with a smile. “The God of Wealth is not a sonic God Spirit, but he will not disappoint you.”

“San Mu has never disappointed me,” Feng Yin Yin said with a blink of her eyes.

It was too late to take Feng Yin Yin to the Gold Crystal System, so Han Sen used the Sky God Crown. He picked up Bao’er and Feng Yin Yin and took them into the God of Wealth Temple. They appeared on the altar.

Feng Yin Yin looked at Han Sen with shock. “How did you do that? How can you go to a god temple from home so quickly?”

“It is because this is my god temple,” Han Sen said with a smile. “I can come and go as I please.”

“Your god temple? Are you a God Spirit, San Mu?” Feng Yin Yin looked at Han Sen with curiosity.

“This god statue does not look like you.” Feng Yin Yin looked at the God of Wealth statue. It was Han Sen’s god statue, and it was made from a god base.

Han Sen was wearing the Sky God Crown, which was how he had become a God Spirit. He was not actually a God Spirit, which was why the god statue did not look like him. The god statue’s face was very blurry, so no one could really identify it.

The Sky God Crown on the god statue’s head was the same as the Sky God Crown on his head.

“Put one drop of your blood onto the god stove.” Han Sen did not explain things further. He pointed at the stove on the gold altar.

Feng Yin Yin nodded. She walked to the stove and picked up a knife. Her nervous hands trembled.

“Don’t worry,” Han Sen said. “This place is mine. No matter what your talent is, you can get an inheritable Blood-Pulse.”

“Thank you, San Mu.” Feng Yin Yin was not as nervous now, so she cut her finger and dropped some of her blood onto the god stove.

A moment later, the god stove played a god sound. Some gold light was released. A tree of gold light appeared out of the stove.

The gold tree shot up into the sky. It had many different coins on it. It was a money tree.

Super Gene - Chapter 3162 - God of Wealth Blood-Pulse

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Chapter 3162 God of Wealth Blood-Pulse

He knew it was just an illusion and a weird scene. Still, seeing the money tree with lots of coins hanging from its boughs and feeling the aura of the gold money tree and a sky full of stars made him open his eyes wide.

The coins on the money tree fell off. They were going straight for Feng Yin Yin. They melted into her body. Her body was given a God Spirit mark that resembled a coin. It immediately started to shine. Its voluminosity grew brighter and brighter.

The tree full of coins fell. It all melted into Feng Yin Yin’s body. At the same time, the Sky God Crown received a wonderful message.

Overall: S-class Blood-Pulse inheritor

“Do the God Spirits use this to decide who to give their Blood – Pulses to?” At the same time, Han Sen received even more messages from the Sky God Crown.

There were options for giving the person’s Blood-Pulse. There were four choices: one corner, broken, perfect, and inheritor.

One corner meant one God Spirit Blood-Pulse would be given at random. It was the lowest level a God Spirit Blood-Pulse could impart. It gave a person a small God Spirit Blood-Pulse. It did not do much. It just made people a beginner-level gene caster.

Broken God Spirit Blood – Pulses were better. Some features of the God Spirits were there, but they were not complete. They were not strong either.

There was no need to explain things about perfect. It basically meant giving a person a perfect God Spirit Blood-Pulse and creating a contract. When the person needed it, they could call upon the God Spirit’s contract to combine and fight with their aid.

God Spirits were able to use their inherited Blood-Pulse. It gave them extra power to fight.

Of course, God Spirits gave humans these benefits to make humans grow. When humans had a contract with a gene race, God Spirits would take some of that power for themselves. It was mutually beneficial, as it helped humans grow. When humans gained a gene race, God Spirits were able to take some of that power. The stronger the gene race was, the more power they were able to take for themselves.

The power taken away was used to make a god base.

When God Spirits gave humans a Blood Pulse, it also meant risking the chance of causing damage to themselves. If the human selected was not very good, a God Spirit would not dare give them a perfect Blood-Pulse. It would not give out an inheritor Blood-Pulse.

Feng Yin Yin was quite excellent. Although she was not a perfect match, an S-rank ranking made her worthy of an inheritor Blood-Pulse.

Regardless of how poor Feng Yin Yin’s review might have been, Han Sen would have still given her an inheritor Blood – Pulse. In his eyes, Feng Yin Yin was perfect enough.

“In the name of God of Wealth, I give you my Blood-Pulse. Feng Yin Yin, do you want to be my inheritor?” Han Sen’s hands touched Feng Yin Yin’s forehead. The Sky God Crown shone with a god light. It put Feng Yin Yin inside the god light.

“I am willing,” Feng Yin Yin seriously answered.

Sky God Crown’s gold god light was like a spring of water. It gushed down onto the coin mark on her mark forehead. A weird connection formed between them.

After the inheritor ritual was performed, Han Sen felt the Sky God Crown power lessen. The whole of the God of Wealth Temple’s light started to dim. If God of Wealth Temple did not have Decapitation Queen guarding it, it would have become a Disaster God Spirit. The God of Wealth Temple was not able to suppress it.

Han Sen thought, “I don’t know when the power of the Sky God Crown will be restored. Inheritor Blood-Pulses cannot be given out like candy.”

“San Mu, you really are a God Spirit!” Feng Yin Yin knew Han Sen was the God of Wealth, but her attitude did not change. She joyfully smiled and looked extremely excited.

Han Sen told Feng Fei Fei, “This is our secret. Don’t tell anyone, and that includes your Auntie.” He did not want people looking at him like he was a monster.

“This will be a secret between you and me,” Feng Yin Yin said as she blinked her eyes. “Now, we wait for Feng Yin Yin to get a gene race. After that, I will start reaping my benefits.” Han Sen was very hopeful, but he did not know how many gene races Feng Yin Yin could earn before giving him the necessary power to make a god base.

After thinking it over, Han Sen decided to bring out a king-class gene egg to give to Feng Yin Yin. He smiled and said, “Try this out. Can you use your God of Wealth Blood-Pulse to hatch it?”

Feng Yin Yin did not mind trying. She accepted the gene egg and used the God of Wealth Blood-Pulse to try and tame it. An Annihilation God Spirit Blood-Pulse was very good. The king-class gene egg was absorbed into the God Spirit mark. It quickly hatched.

At the same time, Han Sen felt a weird power come from the God Spirit mark. It went into the Sky God Crown.

Han Sen felt disappointed. While wearing the Sky God Crown, that power was like pouring a glass of water into a swimming pool. It did not do much. To create a god base, he needed a lot more power than that.

Fortunately, if a gene race evolved in Feng Yin Yin’s God Spirit mark in the future, Han Sen could take some of that power. The greater the power of the gene race was, the more power he would receive in return.

Now, it was just hatching. It was understandable that the power gained was low.

“It is no wonder why God Spirits favor many members. If it was just one member, who knows how long it could ever take to form another god base?” Han Sen ransacked his mind for solutions on how to bring more members to his god temple.

After thinking it over, killing the God Chaos Party’s members could earn him a god base with each kill. That was a more direct way to his woes than slaving away to recruit members.

“I wonder where Rocky Dee’s god temple is.” Han Sen wanted to kill Rocky Dee, but he was unable to locate him. He could not even find his god temple.

He took Feng Yin Yin and Bao’er back to Feng castle. Feng Fei Fei was already back, and she had been looking for them.

When Feng Fei Fei saw them in the garden, she asked with confusion, “Where have you guys been? I’ve been looking all over for you.”

She had already asked the maids in the castle, and no one had seen them around. They were nowhere to be found.

“Little Auntie, why are you looking for us?” Feng Yin Yin tried to change the subject.

Feng Fei Fei’s mood was fine. She did not ask any more about her last question. She pulled Feng Yin Yin’s hand and said, “Little Yin, I spoke to God Speak King. He has allowed you to pray before the Prophet God for a God Spirit Blood-Pulse. You should ready yourself. We are going to Prophet God Temple tomorrow.”

Feng Yin Yin looked a little irritated as she said, “Auntie, there is no need. I have a God Spirit Blood-Pulse now.”

“What?” Feng Fei Fei was frozen. She looked to be in a state of disbelief. “How could you have a God Spirit Blood-Pulse?”

With mustered courage, Feng Yin Yin said, “Auntie, I asked San Mu to take me to God of Wealth Temple. I received the God of Wealth Blood-Pulse from the God of Wealth Temple.”

Feng Fei Fei was shocked. Her face kept morphing into different expressions. No words could describe how she felt.

She had put so much effort into this happening. The amount of effort she had put in, the favors she owed, and the strings she had pulled to earn this opportunity for Feng Yin Yin were unquantifiable. One sentence from Feng Yin Yin threw it all away.

The Amazing Hoddøya Bronze Age Spear – A Gift to the Gods - History

Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours. This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a size and a look of a regular private letter (9.4x4.3x0.3 inches or 24x11x0.7cm) and it does not disclose its contents

Cleocin Product Description

Cleocin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic of the group of lincosamides. This antibiotic has a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity and is effective against aerobic gram-positive bacteria and anaerobic bacteria.

Cleocin inhibits protein synthesis in bacterial cells, thus rendering bacteriostatic and bacteriological effect. Cleocin antibiotic is prescribed for pediatric and adult patients for the treatment of:

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While treating a bacterial infection, the dosage regimen and duration of antibiotic therapy are determined individually given the disease severity, the patient's condition and the sensitivity of microorganisms to Cleocin.

The recommended dose of Cleocin for adults and adolescents aged 16 and older is 150 mg every six hours. During severe infections, range of the single doses of Cleocin varies between 300mg and 450 mg.

The pediatric Cleocin dose is determined depending on the child’s body weight. For the treatment of severe infections, the daily dose is prescribed according to 8 to 16 mg of Cleocin per kg of child’s body weight. If necessary, the daily dose can be increased up to 20 mg.

It is recommended to take Cleocin at regular intervals. If you forget to take your antibiotic at time, immediately take the next dose of Cleocin. If it is time for the next intake of capsule, skip the missed dose of Cleocin and continue your regular dosing schedule.

Dose adjustment of Cleocin is not required in patients with impaired liver and kidney function. During prolonged antibiotic therapy or irregular intake of Cleocin, some patients may develop bacterial resistance to the antibiotic and superinfection. If superinfection symptoms occur, the treatment regimen of bacterial infection can be required to be changed.

Cleocin is not recommended for the treatment of meningitis, since this antibiotic poorly penetrates into cerebrospinal fluid. The patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease should take Cleocin with caution.

It is recommended to store Cleocin in a warm dry and safe place, out of the sight of children, at temperature from 20°C to 30°C. Cleocin antibiotic must be protected from freezing and direct light.

Cleocin Safety Information

Cleocin may cause severe skin reactions (including toxic epidermal necrolysis) in some patients. In such cases, antibacterial treatment with Cleocin should be permanently discontinued. Long-term and irregular intake of Cleocin antibiotic may promote a change of normal flora of the intestine and severe diarrhea.

Information about the bacterial infection treatment published in Cleocin review is provided for familiarization purposes and is not intended as a substitute for medical advice of an infectious disease specialist. The online pharmacy will not be held responsible for losses, damages and consequences of any kind incurred as a result of misuse of the information about Cleocin antibiotic agent.

Cleocin Side Effects

The most common and most severe undesirable effect of Cleocin is diarrhoea. If Cleocin causes severe diarrhea, a risk of antibiotic-associated colitis increases. Other undesirable effects that may occur when using Cleocin broad-spectrum antibiotic are: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, reduction of liver functions, pseudoallergy, oesophagitis, vaginitis, urticaria, rash, erythema multiforme, and pruritus. Less often Cleocin may cause parageusia, eosinophilia, local irritation, pain and abscess. These rarely undesirab,le effects occur in less than 1% of patients.

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Do Your Dreams Mean Anything?

I shall begin by giving a short account of the views of earlier writers on this subject and of the status of the dream-problem in contemporary science since in the course of this treatise, I shall not often have occasion to refer to either. In spite of thousands of years of endeavour, little progress has been made in the scientific understanding of dreams. This fact has been so universally acknowledged by previous writers on the subject that it seems hardly necessary to quote individual opinions.

The reader will find, in many stimulating observations, and plenty of interesting material relating to our subject, but little or nothing that concerns the true nature of the dream, or that solves definitely any of its enigmas.

The educated layman, of course, knows even less of the matter.

The conception of the dream that was held in prehistoric ages by primitive peoples, and the influence which it may have exerted on the formation of their conceptions of the universe, and of the soul, is a theme of such great interest that it is only with reluctance that I refrain from dealing with it in these pages. I will refer the reader to the well-known works of Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Herbert Spencer, E. B. Tylor and other writers I will only add that we shall not realise the importance of these problems and speculations until we have completed the task of dream interpretation that lies before us.

A reminiscence of the concept of the dream that was held in primitive times seems to underlie the evaluation of the dream which was current among the peoples of classical antiquity.[1] They took it for granted that dreams were related to the world of the supernatural beings in whom they believed, and that they brought inspirations from the gods and demons. Moreover, it appeared to them that dreams must serve a special purpose in respect of the dreamer that, as a rule, they predicted the future.

The extraordinary variations in the content of dreams, and in the impressions which they produced on the dreamer, made it, of course, very difficult to formulate a coherent conception of them, and necessitated manifold differentiations and group-formations, according to their value and reliability.

The valuation of dreams by the individual philosophers of antiquity naturally depended on the importance which they were prepared to attribute to manticism in general.

In the two works of Aristotle in which there is mention of dreams, they are already regarded as constituting a problem of psychology. We are told that the dream is not god-sent, that it is not of divine but of daimonic origin.

For nature is really daimonic, not divine that is to say, the dream is not a supernatural revelation, but is subject to the laws of the human spirit, which has, of course, a kinship with the divine.

The dream is defined as the psychic activity of the sleeper, inasmuch as he is asleep. Aristotle was acquainted with some of the characteristics of the dream-life for example, he knew that a dream converts the slight sensations perceived in sleep into intense sensations (‰_÷one imagines that one is walking through fire, and feels hot, if this or that part of the body becomes only quite slightly warm‰_ª), which led him to conclude that dreams might easily betray to the physician the first indications of an incipient physical change which escaped observation during the day.[2]

As has been said, those writers of antiquity who preceded Aristotle did not regard the dream as a product of the dreaming psyche, but as an inspiration of divine origin, and in ancient times, the two opposing tendencies which we shall find throughout the ages in respect of the evaluation of the dream-life, were already perceptible.

The ancients distinguished between the true and valuable dreams which were sent to the dreamer as warnings, or to foretell future events, and the vain, fraudulent and empty dreams, whose object was to misguide him or lead him to destruction.

The pre-scientific conception of the dream which obtained among the ancients was, of course, in perfect keeping with their general conception of the universe, which was accustomed to project as an external reality that which possessed reality only in the life of the psyche. Further, it accounted for the main impression made upon the waking life by the morning memory of the dream for in this memory the dream, as compared with the rest of the psychic content, seems to be something alien, coming, as it were, from another world. It would be an error to suppose that the theory of the supernatural origin of dreams lacks followers even in our own times for quite apart from pietistic and mystical writers -- who cling, as they are perfectly justified in doing, to the remnants of the once predominant realm of the supernatural until these remnants have been swept away by scientific explanation -- we not infrequently find that quite intelligent persons, who in other respects are averse to anything of a romantic nature, go so far as to base their religious belief in the existence and co-operation of superhuman spiritual powers on the inexplicable nature of the phenomena of dreams (Haffner).

The validity ascribed to the dream life by certain schools of philosophy -- for example, by the school of Schelling -- is a distinct reminiscence of the undisputed belief in the divinity of dreams which prevailed in antiquity and for some thinkers, the mantic or prophetic power of dreams is still a subject of debate. This is due to the fact that the explanations attempted by psychology are too inadequate to cope with the accumulated material, however strongly the scientific thinker may feel that such superstitious doctrines should be repudiated.

To write a history of our scientific knowledge of the dream problem is extremely difficult, because, valuable though this knowledge may be in certain respects, no real progress in a definite direction is as yet discernible. No real foundation of verified results has hitherto been established on which future investigators might continue to build. Every new author approaches the same problems afresh, and from the very beginning.

If I were to enumerate such authors in chronological order, giving a survey of the opinions which each has held concerning the problems of the dream, I should be quite unable to draw a clear and complete picture of the present state of our knowledge on the subject. I have therefore preferred to base my method of treatment on themes rather than on authors, and in attempting the solution of each problem of the dream, I shall cite the material found in the literature of the subject.

But as I have not succeeded in mastering the whole of this literature - for it is widely dispersed and interwoven with the literature of other subjects -- I must ask my readers to rest content with my survey as it stands, provided that no fundamental fact or important point of view has been overlooked.

In a supplement to a later German edition, the author adds:

I shall have to justify myself for not extending my summary of the literature of dream problems to cover the period between first appearance of this book and the publication of the second edition. This justification may not seem very satisfactory to the reader none the less, to me it was decisive.

The motives which induced me to summarise the treatment of dreams in the literature of the subject have been exhausted by the foregoing introduction to have continued this would have cost me a great deal of effort and would not have been particularly useful or instructive.

For the interval in question -- a period of nine years -- has yielded nothing new or valuable as regards the conception of dreams, either in actual material or in novel points of view. In most of the literature which has appeared since the publication of my own work, the latter has not been mentioned or discussed it has, of course, received the least attention from the so-called ‰_÷research workers on dreams‰_ª, who have thus afforded a brilliant example of the aversion to learning anything new so characteristic of the scientist. ‰_÷Les savants ne sont pas curieux‰_ª, said the scoffer, Anatole France.

If there were such a thing in science as the right of revenge, I, in my turn, should be justified in ignoring the literature which has appeared since the publication of this book.

The few reviews which have appeared in the scientific journals are so full of misconceptions and lack of comprehension that my only possible answer to my critics would be a request that they should read this book over again -- or perhaps merely that they should read it!

And in a supplement to the fourth German edition which appeared in 1914, a year after I published the first English translation of this work, he writes:

Since then, the state of affairs has certainly undergone a change my contribution to the ‰_÷interpretation of dreams‰_ª is no longer ignored in the literature of the subject. But the new situation makes it even more impossible to continue the foregoing summary.

The Interpretation of Dreams has evoked a whole series of new contentions and problems, which have been expounded by the authors in the most varied fashions. But I cannot discuss these works until I have developed the theories to which their authors have referred. Whatever has appeared to me as valuable in this recent literature, I have accordingly reviewed in the course of the following exposition. About Dream Interpretation