February 6, 2018 Day 18 of the Second Yearv - History

February 6, 2018 Day 18 of the Second Yearv - History

11:00AM THE PRESIDENT receives his intelligence briefing

Oval Office

1:45PM THE PRESIDENT hosts a law enforcement roundtable on MS-13

Cabinet Room

In-House Pool Spray

3:40PM THE PRESIDENT signs the National Security Presidential Memorandum (NSPM) establishing the National Vetting Center

Oval Office

Closed Press

Briefing Schedule

2:30PM Press Briefing with Press Secretary Sarah Sanders

White House Briefing Room

2021 Daily Holidays that fall on February 18, include:

  • Cow Milked While Flying in an Airplane Day 
  • Crab-Stuffed Flounder Day 
  • Drink Wine Day 
  • Eat Ice Cream for Breakfast Day 
  • National Battery Day 
  • National Hate Florida Day 
  • Pluto Day 
  • Thumb Appreciation Day 

2021 Weekly Holidays that include February 18, are:

  • Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia Staff Education Week - February 14-21
  • Brotherhood / Sisterhood Week - February 15-20, 2021 (Third Week in February)
  • Celebration of Love Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week in February)
  • Children of Alcoholics Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week in February)
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Awareness Week - February 13-19
  • Freelance Writers Appreciation Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Week of February)
  • Great American Pizza Bake - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Week of February)
  • Heart Failure Awareness Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Week of Valentine's Day)
  • Homes for Birds Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week of February)
  • International Flirting Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Week of Valentines Day)
  • Jell-O Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week of February)
  • Kraut and Frankfurter Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week of February)
  • Learning Disabilities Week - February 15-18, 2021
  • Lent - February 17 - March 29, 2021
  • Love a Mensch Week - February 14-20, 2021
  • Love Teaching Week - February 14-21
  • Make Mine Chocolate - (Campaign kicks off annually on Feb 15, and ends onꃪster which is April 4, 2021)
  • National Cardiac Rehabilitation Week - February 14-20, 2021 - (Second Week of February)
  • National Condom Week - February 14-21
  • National Date Week (Fruit) - February 12-21, 2021
  • National Entrepreneurship Week - February 13-20, 2021
  • National FFA Week - February 13-20, 2021
  • National Green Week - February 7 - April 30, 2021
  • National Hero Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week of February)
  • National Nestbox Week - February 14-21
  • National New Idea Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week of February)
  • National Pancake Week - February 14-20, 2021
  • National Salute to Veteran Patients - February 14-20, 2021 (Week of February 14 - Valentine's Day)
  • National Secondhand Wardrobe Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week in February)
  • National Week of Chastity - February 14-20, 2021
  • NCCDP Alzheimer's & Dementia Staff Education Week - February 14-21
  • Pickle Time Week - February 14-20, 2021 (Second Full Week of February)
  • Take Your Family to School Week - February 14-21, 2021
  • World Irish Dancing Week - February 13-20, 2021

2021 Monthly Holidays that include February 18, are:

There are too many monthly holidays to include here, so please check out our February Holidays page to see all of the holidays that are celebrated the entire month of February.

  1. A page on each holiday will be coming soon and linked above.
  2. If a date is a movable holiday, that is different every year, I'll include the year as well as the date rule above. Otherwise, the holiday falls on the same date each year.

Historical Events on February 18

1478 George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London (allegedly by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine).

Event of Interest

1503 Henry Tudor (later Henry VIII) created Prince of Wales

Event of Interest

1519 Hernán Cortés leaves Cuba for the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico with 11 ships and 500 men

    France & Turkey sign military/trade agreement against King Karel Huguenot Jean Poltrot de Mere shoots gen Francois De Guise Zeeland falls to Dutch rebels

Event of Interest

Historic Publication

1678 John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" is published in Holborn, London, by Nathaniel Ponder

    Fort St. Louis is established by a Frenchman at Matagorda Bay thus forming the basis for France's claim to Texas. Quakers conduct 1st formal protest of slavery in Germantown, Pa French invade under Jacques Cassard on Curacao 1st opera performed in America, "Flora", in Charleston, South Carolina

Event of Interest

1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupy Inverness, Scotland

    Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II bans children under 8 from labor Trinidad is surrendered to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby 1st US land-grant college, Ohio University, Athens Ohio, chartered

Victory in Battle

1814 The Battle of Montereau victory of French under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians and Württembergers under the King of Württemberg.

    More than 100 vessels destroyed in a storm, Gibraltar 1st US labor newspaper, "The Man", published, NYC Detroit Boat Club forms (& still exists) 1st regular steamboat service to California starts (or 02/28) California Legislature creates nine Bay Area counties

Event of Interest

1856 The American Party (Know-Nothings) convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to nominate its first Presidential candidate, former President Millard Fillmore.

Event of Interest

1857 Chinese residents in the fledging state of Sarawak rebel against the "White Rajah" James Brooke

Event of Interest

1861 Confederate President Jefferson Davis inaugurated at Montgomery, Alabama (US Civil War)

Event of Interest

1861 King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes first King of Italy

    Battle of Fort Moultrie, SC occupied by Federals Evacuation of Charleston, South Carolina Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft Anderson, NC Direct telegraph link established between Britain and New Zealand John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jessie Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico. Arabs capture Egyptian premier Nabar Pasha

Statue of Liberty

1879 Sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi is awarded a patent for his design for the Statue of Liberty

Event of Interest

1884 Police seize all copies of tolstoy's "What I Believe In"

Historic Publication

1885 Mark Twain publishes the "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" in the US

    Capt Archinard's army fights with Nyamina of Niger in West-Sudan Cave of Winds at Niagara Falls goes almost dry for first time in 50 yrs 80°F recorded in San Francisco, California San Francisco named as a port of dispatch for Army transports Stanley Cup, Montreal Arena, Westmount, Quebec: Montreal Victorias beat Winnipeg Victorias, 3-2 to sweep series, 2-0 for CAHL Battle at Paardeberg, 1,270 British killed/injured British troops occupy Monte Christo, Natal H Cecil Booth patented a dust removing suction cleaner

Event of Interest

1901 Winston Churchill makes his maiden speech in the British House of Commons.

Music Premiere

1902 Jules Massenet's opera "Le jongleur de Notre-Dame" premieres in Monte Carlo

Event of Interest

1905 Frank Wedekind's "Hidalla oder Sein und Haben" (Hidalla, or Being and Having) premieres in Munich

Event of Interest

1906 Vincent d'Indy's "Jour D'été à La Montagne" premieres in Paris

    1st US postage stamps in rolls issued The American ambassador to Japan is given a note by the Japanese in which they agree to restrict Japanese emigration to the US this becomes known as the 'Gentlemen's Agreement'

Event of Interest

1909 Boston Red Sox trade Cy Young, at 41, to Cleveland Naps

    The first official flight with air mail takes place in Allahabad, British India, when Henri Pequet, a 23-year-old pilot, delivers 6,500 letters to Naini, about 10 km away.

Event of Interest

1913 French modernist painting "Nude Descending a Staircase" by Marcel Duchamp causes an uproar when shown in New York

    President Francisco Madero of Mexico is overthrown Germany begins a blockade of Britain The last German garrison in the German colony of Cameroons surrenders 1st major strike of the Russian "February Revolution" starts at the giant Putilov factory in Petrograd [NS=Mar 3] Germany renews its offensive against the Russians, making dramatic gains against disorganized and dispirited Russian troops

NHL Record

1919 Cy Denneny of NHL Ottawa Senators scores record 52nd goal

Event of Interest

1922 Kenesaw Mountain Landis resigns his federal judgeship to give full attention to job as Major League Baseball Commissioner

    WOC-AM in Davenport IA begins radio transmissions The Capper-Volstead Act allows farmers to buy and sell cooperatively without the risk of prosecution under antitrust laws Belgium: Borinage-mine workers strike for higher wages US Ladies' Figure Skating championship won by Theresa Weld Blanchard US Men's Figure Skating championship won by Sherwin Badger

Event of Interest

1924 US Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby resigns due to Teapot Dome scandal

    1st US radio broadcast of "Cities Service Concerts" US & Canada open diplomatic relations Sonja Henie of Norway wins the women’s figure skating gold medal at the St. Moritz Winter Olympic Games her first of 3 consecutive titles in the event

Music Premiere

1930 Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's musical "Simple Simon" premieres in NYC

    US astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto Japan declares Manchuria independent Sonja Henie wins her 6th straight World Women's figure skating title Japan proclaims and names Manchukuo state in north east China NHL record 32 points scored, NY Americans (28) & Mont Maroons (24) Golden Gate International Exposition opens on Treasure Island Japanese troop land on Bali 1st edition of Dutch resistance newspaper "Trouw" Munich resistance group "White Rose" captured by Nazis A syndicate headed by New York lumberman William D Cox buys MLB's Philadelphia Phillies for $850,000 33 year-old Cox is youngest owner in baseball German Propaganda Minister Josef Goebbells demands "total war" from German citizens in speech at Berlin Sportpalast Maastricht resistance fighter JAJ Janssen arrested 15-year-old Joe Nuxhall signs a contract to play baseball with the Cincinnati Reds just one day after playing in a high school basketball game debuts later that year 24 die in a train crash in Gallitzin, Pennsylvania

Event of Interest

1965 Church deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson is beaten and shot during a peaceful march in Marion, Alabama. His death 8 days later inspires the Selma to Montgomery marches.

    The Gambia becomes independent from the United Kingdom Softball pitcher Eddie Feigner strikes out 6 straight major leaguers Thousands of people in West Berlin demonstrate against US involvement in the Vietnam War X Winter Olympic Games close in Grenoble, France Britain commences a trial of year-round daylight saving time (BST - British Standard Time, one hour ahead of GMT)

Event of Interest

    After winning men's luge singles Olympic gold medal in Innsbruck (1964), Thomas Köhler of Germany teams with Klaus Bonsack to take out the doubles in Grenoble Doug Walters scores 2nd innings century after 242 in 1st PLO-attack El-Al plane in Zurich Switzerland Chicago 7 defendants found innocent of inciting to riot

Event of Interest

1970 US President Richard Nixon launches the "Nixon doctrine"

    California Supreme Court abolishes death penalty Giulio Andreotti sworn in as premier of Italy for the 1st time

Event of Interest

1972 John Lennon and Yoko Ono end a week of co-hosting Mike Douglas Show

    54-kg octopus measuring 7m across captured in Hood Canal, Washington Belgian Emiel Puttemans runs 3,000m indoor record 7:39.2

Daytona 500

1973 15th Daytona 500: Richard Petty wins his 4th Great American Race by more than 2 laps from Bobby Isaac

    NASA launches Italian satellite San Marcos C-2 (235/843 km) US ambassador to India Daniel Moynihan present $2,046,700,000 check

Music Awards

Music Single

1977 George Harrison releases music single "True Love", from his "33-1/3" album

    Space Shuttle Enterprise takes its maiden flight affixed atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Aircraft Carrier West Indies cricket fast bowlers Joel Garner (4/130) and (Colin Croft 3/85) debut in drawn 1st Test v Pakistan at Bridgetown, Barbados American rock band KISS play their first concert in their hometown venue of Madison Square Garden in New York City 1st Iron Man Triathlon (swim, bike ride, marathon) held, Kona, Hawaii -52°F (-47°C), Old Forge, New York (state record) Mini-series "Roots: Next Generations" premieres on ABC TV NASA launches space vehicle S-202 President Zia ur-Rahman's National Party wins elections in Bangladesh Snow falls in Sahara Desert 21st Daytona 500: Richard Petty wins after race leaders Cale Yarborough and Donnie Allison collide with each other on final lap first 500 mile race broadcast from start to finish Billy Wyman said he will leave Rolling Stones in 1983 (Sure!) Pierre Elliott Trudeau's Liberal Party wins Canadian elections 30th Berlin International Film Festival: "Heartland" and "Palermo or Wolfsburg" win the Golden Bear (tie) Soviet figure skater Irina Rodnina wins her 3rd consecutive Olympic pairs title at Lake Placid gold medals with husband Alexander Zaitsev (1976, 80) and Alexei Ulanov (1972) East German cross country skier Barbara Petzold wins first of 2 gold medals at the Lake Placid Winter Olympics in women's 10k also takes gold as part of 4 x 5k relay team

Event of Interest

1981 20-year-old Edmonton center Wayne Gretzky becomes first player in NHL history to score 5 career hat-tricks before age 21 scores 5 goals and 2 assists in 9-2 Oilers' home win against St. Louis

    Indiana Pacers lose, 121-94 in Milwaukee begin a 28 NBA game losing streak on the road Right wing Lanny McDonald becomes the first player in NHL franchise Calgary Flames' history to score 50 goals in a season in a 5-1 loss to Buffalo Sabres 33rd Berlin International Film Festival: "Ascendancy" and "The Beehive" win the Golden Bear (tie) Revised concordat between Italy & Vatican signed Finnish cross-country skier Marja-Liisa Hämäläinen wins the 20k gold medal at the Sarajevo Winter Olympics sweeps all 3 individual events, also winning 5k and 10k events East German figure skater Katarina Witt wins first of 2 consecutive women's singles gold medals at the Sarajevo Winter Olympics also wins gold in Calgary (1988) Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen wins first of 4 career Olympic gold medals in the Large Hill individual event at the Sarajevo Winter Games San Antonio guard Alvin Robertson scores NBA's 2nd quadruple double-20 points, 11 rebounds, 10 assists & 10 steals in 120-114 win over Phoenix Suns

Event of Interest

1986 Anti-smoking ad airs for 1st time on TV, featuring Yul Brynner: he died of smoking-induced lung cancer on 10th October 1985

June 2018 Calendar

View or download the 2018 calendar.
Go to 2018 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
June 1, 20185:2720:2114h 54m
June 2, 20185:2720:2214h 55m
June 3, 20185:2620:2214h 56m
June 4, 20185:2620:2314h 57m
June 5, 20185:2620:2414h 58m
June 6, 20185:2520:2414h 59m
June 7, 20185:2520:2515h 0m
June 8, 20185:2520:2515h 0m
June 9, 20185:2520:2615h 1m
June 10, 20185:2520:2715h 2m
June 11, 20185:2420:2715h 3m
June 12, 20185:2420:2815h 4m
June 13, 20185:2420:2815h 4m
June 14, 20185:2420:2815h 4m
June 15, 20185:2420:2915h 5m
June 16, 20185:2420:2915h 5m
June 17, 20185:2420:3015h 6m
June 18, 20185:2420:3015h 6m
June 19, 20185:2520:3015h 5m
June 20, 20185:2520:3015h 5m
June 21, 20185:2520:3115h 6m
June 22, 20185:2520:3115h 6m
June 23, 20185:2520:3115h 6m
June 24, 20185:2620:3115h 5m
June 25, 20185:2620:3115h 5m
June 26, 20185:2620:3115h 5m
June 27, 20185:2720:3115h 4m
June 28, 20185:2720:3115h 4m
June 29, 20185:2720:3115h 4m
June 30, 20185:2820:3115h 3m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the June 2018 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.


Host-city selection Edit

On October 8, 2013, the league announced that three venues were vying to host Super Bowl LII: [11] [12] [13]

    in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Minneapolis hosted Super Bowl XXVI in 1992 at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, which was torn down after the 2013 season and replaced in 2016 by U.S. Bank Stadium. in Indianapolis, Indiana. The stadium hosted Super Bowl XLVI in 2012. [14] in New Orleans, Louisiana. The city has hosted 10 Super Bowls, including seven at the Superdome, most recently Super Bowl XLVII in 2013. [15][16][17]

On May 20, 2014, the league's owners picked Minneapolis at their meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. [18] [19]

Teams Edit

The NFC was represented by the number-one playoff seed Philadelphia Eagles, while the AFC was represented by the number-one playoff seed New England Patriots, marking the fourth time in the previous five years that the Super Bowl had featured the top team from each conference. [20]

Philadelphia Eagles Edit

The Eagles finished the regular season with a record of 13–3, the same as New England, Minnesota, and Pittsburgh, but the various tie-breaking provisions gave them the NFC's top seed in the 2017–18 NFL playoffs. It was a substantial improvement for the team under second-year head coach Doug Pederson the Eagles finished the previous season with a 7–9 record. In the 2017 season, the team scored 457 points (third in the NFL), while giving up just 295 (fourth) points. [21]

The offense was led by Pro Bowl quarterback Carson Wentz. In just his second season, he recorded a passer rating of 101.9, throwing for 3,296 yards and 33 touchdowns, with only seven interceptions. His top target was Pro Bowl tight end Zach Ertz, who caught 74 passes for 824 yards and eight touchdowns. Other contributors were two receivers acquired from off-season free agency: Alshon Jeffery, who caught 57 passes for 789 yards and nine scores and Torrey Smith, who had 36 receptions for 430 yards. Meanwhile, third-year receiver Nelson Agholor had the best season of his career, hauling in 62 passes for 768 yards and eight touchdowns, a higher total in each category than in his previous two seasons combined. The Eagles rushing attack also benefited from two recently acquired players, LeGarrette Blount and Jay Ajayi. Blount, an off-season signing who won a Super Bowl with the Patriots, gained 776 rushing yards and two touchdowns, while Ajayi, picked up by a mid-season trade with the Miami Dolphins, rushed for 873 yards and caught 24 passes for 154 yards combined with the two teams. Philadelphia also had a superb offensive line, led by two Pro Bowl selections: Tackle Lane Johnson and Guard Brandon Brooks. [22]

Philadelphia had stormed to the top of the NFC by winning 10 of their first 12 games, but suffered a major setback on December 10, when Wentz went down with a season-ending ACL tear and was replaced by journeyman backup quarterback Nick Foles, who was playing for his third team in as many years and his second stint with the Eagles. After Wentz's injury, many analysts wrote off the remainder of the Eagles' season as they believed they would not recover from his loss. Surprising analysts, Foles was able to lead the team to victory in that game, as well as the next two. The Eagles rested Foles for their game and were led by third-string quarterback Nate Sudfeld for their meaningless game against the Cowboys in Week 17, a game they lost, but in the Eagles' two playoff games, Foles threw for a combined total of 598 yards, three touchdowns and no interceptions, replicating the excellent performance of Wentz to carry the Eagles to the NFC title. [24] The Eagles were not favored to win in any of their 2018 playoff appearances including Super Bowl 52. The team embraced their role as underdogs and were frequently seen wearing dog masks after each playoff victory as were their fans.

New England Patriots Edit

During the regular season, New England's offense led the league in yards gained (6,307) and ranked second in points scored (458). The 40-year-old Brady finished his 18th season with a league-leading 4,577 passing yards, 32 touchdowns and just eight interceptions, earning him his 13th selection to the Pro Bowl and his third league MVP award. One change that helped make up for the loss of Edelman was the acquisition of receiver Brandin Cooks, who caught 65 passes for 1,082 yards and seven touchdowns. Brady was also aided by the healthy return of Gronkowski, who had played just eight games in the previous season, finishing this year with 69 catches for 1,084 yards and eight scores. Receiver Danny Amendola added 61 receptions for 659 yards, as well as another 240 yards returning punts. With the loss of their previous season's rushing leader LeGarrette Blount to free agency, Dion Lewis stepped up to take the lead, rushing for 896 yards and six touchdowns despite starting only eight games. He also caught 32 passes for 214 yards and two touchdowns and added 570 yards and another touchdown returning kickoffs. Rex Burkhead chipped in 518 all-purpose yards, 30 receptions, and eight touchdowns. In passing situations, the team relied heavily on running back James White, who caught 56 passes for 429 yards and rushed for 171 on the ground. These backs were aided by the blocking of fullback James Develin, who earned his first Pro Bowl selection. On special teams, kicker Stephen Gostkowski ranked second in the NFL with 156 points and fourth in field goals made with 37, while veteran special team ace Matthew Slater earned his seventh consecutive Pro Bowl selection. [28]

Playoffs Edit

In the playoffs, the Patriots earned a first-round bye and home-field advantage due to their status as the AFC's first overall seed. In the divisional round, they defeated the Tennessee Titans 35–14, as Brady passed for 337 yards and three touchdowns. In that game, the defense amassed eight quarterback sacks of Marcus Mariota and held the Titans' running game to 65 yards rushing. [30] They then defeated the Jacksonville Jaguars 24–20 in the AFC Championship Game, rallying from behind to win the game after the Jaguars jumped out to an early 14–3 lead and whose league-best defense stymied Brady and the rest of the offense for most of the first half. [ citation needed ] Down 20–10 in the fourth quarter, the Patriots' comeback was sealed by two Brady-led drives, both resulting in touchdown passes to Danny Amendola, as well as a key defensive stop by Stephon Gilmore, whose acrobatic block of a Blake Bortles pass ended Jacksonville's last chance to score. Rob Gronkowski was injured in the game with a concussion, leaving his status for the Super Bowl in doubt. Amendola was the breakout star for the Patriots during their two playoff wins, leading the team with 196 receiving yards, and serving as Brady's primary target. [31]

Philadelphia also earned a first-round bye and home-field advantage as the NFC's first overall seed. They started off the divisional round by narrowly defeating the Atlanta Falcons 15–10, stopping the Falcons on four consecutive plays after the Falcons had a first-down-and-goal situation on the Eagles' 9-yard line during their final drive. [32] They then soundly defeated the Minnesota Vikings 38–7 in the NFC Championship Game. Despite the Vikings scoring on their opening drive, the Eagles' defense held them to three punts, two turnovers on downs, two interceptions, and one lost fumble in their remaining drives of the game. Meanwhile, Foles had a great game, in which he completed 26 of 33 passes for 353 yards and three touchdowns. [33]

Pre-game notes Edit

This game was a rematch of Super Bowl XXXIX. Only one player, Patriots starting quarterback Tom Brady, remained on either roster from that contest. [34] Bill Belichick, the Patriots' head coach in that contest, also remained in that position. Two Eagles, running back LeGarrette Blount and defensive lineman Chris Long, had been Patriots in 2017's Super Bowl LI. [35] The Eagles were 1–4 against the Brady/Belichick era Patriots prior to this game (preseason notwithstanding), including Super Bowl XXXIX, their one win being a 35–28 win at Gillette Stadium in December during their relatively weak 2015 season, where after falling behind 14–0, they proceeded to rally for 35 points and hold them down to only two more touchdowns on their end to win, allowing them to finally get their first revenge for eleven years prior.

The Patriots were the designated home team for Super Bowl LII, because the AFC team is the designated home team in even-numbered years and the NFC team in odd-numbered years. As the designated home team, the Patriots chose to wear their road white jerseys with navy blue pants, becoming the sixth team to wear their white jerseys as the home team and the third team to wear white in back-to-back Super Bowls, following the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowls XII and XIII and again in Super Bowls XXVII and XXVIII. [ citation needed ] The Eagles therefore wore their standard home uniform of midnight green jerseys with white pants. [36] Twelve of the previous 13 Super Bowls had been won by teams wearing white jerseys. The last team to win a Super Bowl while wearing their home uniforms was the Green Bay Packers in Super Bowl XLV (who, coincidentally, had also worn green jerseys). [37]

Gambling establishments had the Patriots as 5 ½ point favorites and projected 47 ½ points scored. [38]

Operations Edit

To coordinate the game and 10 days of events, the National Football League temporarily operated an events office within the Minnesota Vikings office building next to U.S. Bank Stadium. [39] More than 150,000 visitors were expected to attend events associated with the Super Bowl over ten days. [40] Among them were some 5,000-plus media members media day events and press conferences were held at The Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota.

No sales tax was collected on admission tickets to the game and related events, including parking. [41]

To increase security around U.S. Bank Stadium, the stadium's light rail station was shut down for 48 hours before the game, [42] and a nearby homeless shelter was temporarily moved beyond the security perimeter. [43] The Blue Line of the light rail system was only open to ticketholders and passengers with a Gameday Pass, while the Green Line only ran to Stadium Village station on the University of Minnesota campus before continuing on with restricted access. Metro Transit ran shuttle buses between light rail stations, as well as regular bus service was moved for several weeks due to street closures. [44] [45] Thirty activist groups organized a rally and protest against police brutality, corporate greed, and racist practices. 17 people blocked the Green Line train for 90 minutes before the game, and 200 protesters blocked an entrance to the stadium's security perimeter. [46]

Under a 1998 agreement, the Patriots and Eagles owners split the tickets, and the league controlled the game presentation and entertainment in the stadium. The Patriots practiced at the Minnesota Vikings facilities in Eden Prairie while the Eagles used the University of Minnesota. The Eagles got the Vikings' locker room and sideline. The Vikings had advanced to the NFC Championship Game before losing to the Eagles until that point, the possibility of the Vikings advancing to the Super Bowl and thus becoming the first team to play the game in its home stadium was plausible. Had that happened, the Vikings would have used their own locker rooms and training facilities, while the AFC champion would have used the University of Minnesota. [47]

Associated events Edit

The Minnesota Super Bowl Host Committee presented Super Bowl Live on Nicollet Mall in downtown Minneapolis. [48] This ten-day free [5] festival and concert series featured Sheila E., The Revolution, Morris Day and The Time, and The New Power Generation, musicians from Minnesota who collaborated with Prince, a Minneapolis native. Produced by Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Super Bowl Live also included performances by Idina Menzel, Soul Asylum, the Suburbs, Bob Mould, Sounds of Blackness, Dessa, VocalEssence, Mint Condition, and the Jets. [49] In addition to the concert series, Super Bowl Live featured a 200-foot (61 m) American Birkebeiner International Bridge on Nicollet Mall to showcase cross-country skiing, skijoring, fat-tire bicycle racing, [5] and snow tubing demonstrations. [50] There was also a snowmobile stunt show on February 3. [5]

The NFL presented the Super Bowl Experience at the Minneapolis Convention Center [48] [39] [51] from January 27 to February 3 with an entrance fee. [5] Kelly Clarkson performed at the Minneapolis Armory and a U.S. Bank Stadium lounge on the day of the Super Bowl. [52]

The Minneapolis Armory also hosted Jennifer Lopez, Imagine Dragons, and Pink concerts close to U.S. Bank Stadium. [53] [54] [55] [56] Pink also performed the national anthem before the Super Bowl. [57] Halftime performer Justin Timberlake held a ticketed "listening session" of his newest album at Prince's Paisley Park. [58] Dave Matthews Band performed at Xcel Energy Center in Saint Paul. [54] The Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community's Mystic Lake Casino hosted Gwen Stefani, [59] the Chainsmokers, Florida Georgia Line, and Kygo. [60] Planners originally scheduled a 64,000-square-foot (5,900 m 2 ) traveling nightclub for 9500 people, [61] [54] but cancelled, moving its concerts into the main casino. [60] Ellie Goulding's appearance with Kygo was cancelled at the same time. [62] The Mystic Lake Casino in Prior Lake, Minnesota, has the second-largest hotel in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, and Prior Lake hosted Super Bowl-week events including winter activities, a hotdish competition, and fundraisers. [59]

Other events were held at the Mall of America (including Radio Row as a home for national shows [63] [64] ), Saint Paul's RiverCentre [6] and Xcel Energy Center, [65] the Minnesota Vikings' Winter Park location in Eden Prairie, and the University of Minnesota. [66] "Taste of the NFL" is a fundraiser for food banks and was held in Saint Paul. [67] Minneapolis also offered a temporary zip-line across the Mississippi River near downtown. [68] The Luminary Loppet around Lake of the Isles in Minneapolis featured fire dancing, an ice pyramid, and luminary candles at night. [5]

The 2018 Saint Paul Winter Carnival took place leading up to, during and after the Super Bowl. [69] Carnival organizers built a large ice palace to coincide with the Super Bowl festivities, as with Super Bowl XXVI in 1992. [70] The ice palace was planned, [71] [72] cancelled for lack of funds, [73] then re-announced with sponsors. [70] Events in Saint Paul also included an extreme sports demonstration, a "giant slide", and a block party. Officials in the capital city hoped to attract Minneapolis Super Bowl visitors. [74] The Minneapolis Institute of Art had a free 20-by-40-foot (6.1 m × 12.2 m), 6-foot-tall (1.8 m) ice maze. [75]

The Great Northern was a winter festival in the Twin Cities from January 25 to February 4 that included the U.S. Pond Hockey Championships, an ice bar, [76] and an "urban ski competition". [77]

ESPN broadcast its studio programming from the IDS Center in downtown Minneapolis, [78] while Golf Channel (a sister network of Super Bowl LII broadcaster NBC) aired two live episodes of David Feherty's eponymous interview show from the State Theatre. [79]

Native American communities of Minnesota performed nightly drum ceremonies. [64] Various drumlines from around the state performed at different locations throughout the day. [80] [81]

Marketing Edit

The slogan Bold North was developed by the Minnesota Super Bowl Host Committee to promote Super Bowl LII and its surrounding festivities. The slogan was intended to represent an embrace of the region's climate as part of its identity, and was used on merchandise and by the host committee's official sponsors. The NFL unveiled the official logo for Super Bowl LII (a cerulean-colored version of a standardized design) prior to Super Bowl LI, and the official branding elements and secondary logo in October 2017—featuring blue and purple aurora motifs. [82] [83] [84]

United States Edit

NBC broadcast Super Bowl LII, as part of an annual cycle between the three main broadcast television partners of the NFL. [85] NBC's lead NFL team of play-by-play man Al Michaels and color analyst Cris Collinsworth called the game. Sister cable network Universo carried a full Spanish language broadcast produced by Telemundo Deportes, with Edgar Lopez and Rene Giraldo. The Universo Spanish audio was also available on NBC through the SAP channel, where available. [86] [87] NBC employed 73 cameras within the stadium, and introduced "volumetric-AR" graphics featuring 3D body scanning of players, [88] [89] and a new on-air graphics package to be used exclusively for Sunday Night Football going forward. [90]

This was the last game in Westwood One's national radio contract with the NFL before a quiet renewal on undermined terms after the season and Cumulus exited a chapter 11 bankruptcy filing made just before the Super Bowl. [91] Each participating team's flagship station (the Patriots Radio Network's WBZ-FM/Boston, and the Eagles Radio Network's WIP-FM/Philadelphia, along with WEMG/Camden, New Jersey for Spanish play-by-play) carried the game with local announcers. (For the second consecutive year, none of the local flagships are clear-channel stations, and thus the local commentators were only audible for free within each respective team's immediate metropolitan area listeners who live outside the flagship stations' broadcast ranges were required to subscribe to Sirius XM Radio or TuneIn Premium to access the local broadcasts.) Under the terms of the Westwood One contract, any radio station that is not a local flagship, if it is to carry the game, is required to utilize the Westwood One feed. It was the first title win called by Eagles play-by-play announcer Merrill Reese, who has been the primary radio voice of the team since 1977. [92]

Online streams of the game were provided by NBC. It was available on NBCSports.com, the NBC Sports app for mobile devices, tablets, connected-TV devices, and NBC.com without any required login. The Spanish-language broadcast was available on the Telemundo Deportes En Vivo app and TelemundoDeportes.com for desktop devices, connected TV devices, and tablets but not mobile devices. [93] Under new digital rights deals that began with the 2017–18 playoffs, Verizon still offers mobile streaming of games, but no longer holds exclusive rights to stream NFL games on smartphones or make them exclusive to Verizon Wireless subscribers. Instead, Verizon elected to use the deal to bolster its recent acquisition of Yahoo! on January 9, 2018, Verizon announced that it would host streams of playoff games through the Yahoo! Sports and go90 app, including Super Bowl LII. As a result of the deal, the online stream was available to viewers on all Internet devices for the first time, regardless of network (because of Verizon's previous exclusive rights deal, non-Verizon phones had previously been blocked from receiving any NFL telecasts, regardless of source). [94] [95] The game was also available through the NFL Mobile app with the aforementioned change to viewing through the app now being allowed on all mobile carriers. [96]

Dan Patrick and Liam McHugh served as the lead hosts for NBC's pre-game coverage. [97] Mike Tirico, who replaced the retiring Bob Costas in 2017 as NBC's lead studio host for both the NFL and the Olympic Games, did not participate in coverage of Super Bowl LII due to his commitments to prepare for the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea (which opened on the Friday following the game). [98]

As NBC Sports Regional Networks operates regional sports networks in the markets of both teams which participated, the NBC Sports Boston and NBC Sports Philadelphia channels were used to provide additional coverage of the game from a local perspective. Both networks aired coverage from Minneapolis, including pre-game specials focusing on their respective team, followed by a joint broadcast immediately prior to the game. [99]

Nielsen reported a 47.4/70% overnight rating in metered markets, peaking at 52.2/74 during the fourth quarter. These numbers are about 3% lower than early numbers from Super Bowl LI, and the lowest since Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. [100]

Advertising Edit

Dan Lovinger, NBC Sports Group executive vice president of ad sales, stated to Variety in July 2017 that the network was seeking a price "north of $5 million" (the price set for the previous two Super Bowls) for a 30-second commercial during Super Bowl LII. [101] [102] As they began five days after the Super Bowl, NBC offered advertising packages that covered both Super Bowl LII and the 2018 Winter Olympics (which marked the first time since 1992 that a single broadcast network had aired both the Super Bowl and Winter Olympics in the same year) the network estimated that it would bring in at least $1 billion in advertising revenue from the two events. [103] [85] During the second quarter, an equipment failure caused NBC's broadcast to experience dead air for 30 seconds during a commercial break. No actual commercial time was lost. [104] [105]

Advertisements for Tide detergent featuring David Harbour of Stranger Things created a recurring theme, appearing in each quarter, often disguised as well-known commercials for other products, with Harbour eventually declaring "It's a Tide ad." [106] Anheuser-Busch has, as it has done in previous Super Bowls, purchased multiple commercials in the game, advertising Bud Light, Stella Artois and Michelob Ultra. For the first time since Super Bowl VIII, the company reduced the appearances of the Budweiser Clydesdales in a Super Bowl commercial, with the 60-second Budweiser commercial for this event instead focusing on a Budweiser factory plant in Georgia distributing water, referencing the beer maker's efforts to distribute water to families of victims affected by natural disasters, such as wildfires and hurricanes. However, a Clydesdale was featured in a commercial for Tide detergent and the Budweiser Clydesdales only appeared in a five-second Budweiser commercial to remind viewers of the "ClydesdaleCam" livestream event. [107] Other signed advertisers included The Coca-Cola Company and Avocados from Mexico. [102] Cellphone carrier T-Mobile aired a minute long ad with actress Kerry Washington narrating, featuring babies of various ethnic backgrounds. The commercial also features Nirvana's song "All Apologies" played as a lullaby. In the ad, Washington talks about the babies being born with natural instincts of love and not racism calling them "unstoppable" and that they will demand fair and equal pay. T-Mobile CEO John Legere posted to his Twitter account afterwards saying, "This year, we wanted to use our #SuperBowl airtime to share that @TMobile believes we all started in the same place. We are more alike than different. And we are unstoppable." [108]

Fiat Chrysler subsidiary Ram Trucks was met with criticism over its ad "Built to Serve", which featured an excerpt from Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Drum Major Instinct" sermon on the virtues of serving others (February 4, 2018 was also the 50th anniversary of the sermon). The ad was considered an exploitation of King's words to sell a product, with media outlets noting that the sermon in the ad went on to specifically criticize advertisers (including automobile manufacturers) for being "gentlemen of massive verbal persuasion". [109] [110] [111]

Lead-out programs Edit

NBC's lead-out program was an episode of This Is Us, titled "Super Bowl Sunday", [112] alongside a special episode of The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon from Minneapolis' Orpheum Theatre, with halftime performer Justin Timberlake, Dwayne Johnson, Chris Stapleton and the cast of This Is Us as guests. [113] [114]

In a surprise move, Netflix used its advertising time to announce that The Cloverfield Paradox — the third film in the Cloverfield series — would be available for streaming on the service immediately after the game, potentially undercutting viewership of the lucrative post-game slot on NBC. [115]

International broadcasts Edit

Rights holder(s)
Australia The event aired live on the Seven Network and 7mate [116]
Brazil The Super Bowl was shown live by ESPN Brasil, with Paulo Antunes and Everaldo Marques as the announcers for the evening. It was also shown live on Cinemark, Cinépolis, Kinoplex [ contradictory ] and UCI movie theaters across the country.
Canada Bell Media holds broadcast rights for local stations in Canada and aired the game across its networks on CTV, CTV Two, RDS (for French), TSN Radio and TSN2 TSN's regional networks did not carry the game due to a scheduling conflict with the 2018 Scotties Tournament of Hearts, the national women's curling championship. Due to the game being exempt from the CRTC's simultaneous substitution regulations for the second year in a row, Bell reprised the previous year's usage of a sweepstakes and entertainment features to retain Canadian audiences. [117] [118]

On RDS, the announcer was David Arsenault with Pierre Vercheval as analyst and Didier Orméjuste on the sidelines.

Pre-game Edit

Pink performed "The Star-Spangled Banner", [57] while Leslie Odom Jr. sang "America the Beautiful". [123] [124] Pink spit out a throat lozenge shortly before singing the anthem, later verified after many commentators thought she had spit out a piece of gum. [125] She reported being ill with flu symptoms during her performance. [126] No players were observed kneeling during the national anthem, in contrast to the protests that happened earlier in the 2016 and 2017 seasons. [127]

Fifteen Medal of Honor recipients participated in the coin toss ceremony. [128] [129] World War II hero Hershel W. Williams was the honorary captain and had the honors of flipping the coin. [130]

Halftime show Edit

Justin Timberlake headlined the Super Bowl LII halftime show, along with his band "The Tennessee Kids" and featuring the University of Minnesota Marching Band. [131] [132] [133] Timberlake performed in two previous Super Bowls: Super Bowl XXXV in 2001 as a member of NSYNC, and Super Bowl XXXVIII in 2004 with Janet Jackson. [134] [135]

Timberlake's performance drew criticism for not being "spectacular", looking to be safe and avoid incidents such as the infamous "wardrobe malfunction" encountered during his performance with Jackson, and for incorporating a video of Prince, who opposed performances combining the dead and the living. [136] [137]

First half Edit

The New England Patriots won the opening coin toss and elected to defer to the second half. The Patriots kicked off to the Eagles, who opened the game with a 14-play, 67-yard drive that took 7:05 off the clock and resulted in a 25-yard Jake Elliott field goal, giving the Eagles a 3–0 lead. The drive was controlled by the arm of Eagles quarterback Nick Foles, who completed 6 of 9 passes to five different receivers for 61 yards, with a few short runs by LeGarrette Blount and Jay Ajayi mixed in. Foles also made two critical completions on third down plays, hitting Alshon Jeffery for a 17-yard gain on third-and-4, and later found Torrey Smith for a 15-yard completion on third-and-12. The Patriots responded with a drive of their own, almost with exactly the same results quarterback Tom Brady completed 6 of 8 passes for 60 yards to four different receivers, the longest a 28-yard strike to Chris Hogan. The drive stalled out on the Eagles 8-yard line, where they had to settle for Stephen Gostkowski's 26-yard field goal, which tied the game at 3–3. The game's first touchdown was scored by the Eagles on the next drive, taking only three plays: a short pass from Foles to Nelson Agholor, a 36-yard run up the middle by Blount, and a 34-yard touchdown pass from Foles to Jeffery to the left side of the field. The ensuing extra point attempt from Elliott was missed wide right, which made the score 9–3 in favor of the Eagles. The Patriots responded by advancing the ball to the Philadelphia 11-yard line on their next drive, which was set up by a 50-yard completion from Brady to Danny Amendola, where the quarter ended. [138]

With the second quarter under way, the Patriots came away empty-handed on the drive, as Gostkowski missed a 26-yard field goal attempt after holder Ryan Allen mishandled the snap. [139] New England's defense forced the game's only punt on the next drive. On the following drive, Brady completed a 23-yard pass to Brandin Cooks, but a hard hit by defender Malcolm Jenkins knocked the receiver out of the game with a concussion. On third down from near mid-field, the Patriots attempted a trick play that involved two handoffs and a pass downfield to Tom Brady. Brady was open, but dropped the throw from Amendola. They went for it on fourth down, and a pass intended for tight end Rob Gronkowski fell incomplete, giving the Eagles the ball on their own 35-yard line on a turnover-on-downs. The Eagles capitalized on a drive featuring two key completions, a 19-yard catch by Zach Ertz on third-and-7, and a 22-yard reception by Jeffery on the Patriots 21-yard line. On the next play, a 21-yard rumble by Blount gave the Eagles another touchdown. They attempted a two-point conversion, which failed, making the score 15–3. The Patriots quickly struck back, as Brady completed a 46-yard pass to Rex Burkhead on the first play after the kickoff. But the team could only gain two more yards, resulting in Gostkowski's 45-yard field goal that got the score to 15–6. [140]

The Eagles got the ball back with 7:24 on the clock and looked poised to score another touchdown after a 26-yard run by Ajayi gave them a first down on the Patriots 43-yard line. But on the next play, Foles threw a pass that bounced off Jeffery as he tried to make a one-handed catch, and went into the hands of Patriots safety Duron Harmon for an interception, which he returned eight yards to the 10-yard line. The Patriots took advantage of the turnover with a seven-play, 90-yard drive, featuring a 43-yard completion from Brady to Hogan. On the next play, James White scored with a 26-yard touchdown run. Gostkowski missed the ensuing extra point, but the score was now 15–12. Eagles running back Kenjon Barner returned the ensuing kickoff 27 yards to his own 30-yard line as time ran down to the two-minute warning. Two plays later, on third-and-3, Foles completed a short pass to running back Corey Clement, who took off for a 55-yard gain to the New England 8-yard line. Clement then ran the ball six yards to the two-yard line on the next play. Two plays later, Philadelphia faced fourth-and-goal on the 1-yard line with 38 seconds left on the clock. Deciding to go for the touchdown, they attempted a similar trick play to the one that had failed for the Patriots earlier, in what would become the most memorable play of the game. As Foles stepped up to the running back position, Clement took a direct snap and pitched the ball to tight end Trey Burton, who then threw the ball perfectly to Foles, who was wide open in the right side of the end zone. Foles caught the ball, making him the first quarterback ever to catch a touchdown pass in a Super Bowl, and the ensuing extra point was good, giving the Eagles a 22–12 lead, which was taken into the locker room after a short drive by the Patriots. The play came to be known as the Philly Special. [138]

The first half resulted in numerous Super Bowl records from both teams, including most total yards combined (673). This was also the first time two quarterbacks had thrown for over 200 yards in the first half of a Super Bowl, with Brady throwing for 276 yards and Foles 215. [141]

Second half Edit

The Patriots received the second-half kickoff and Brady led New England 75 yards in eight plays. Gronkowski, who caught only one pass for nine yards in the first half, caught five passes for 68 yards on the drive, the last a 5-yard touchdown reception to make the score 22–19. The Eagles responded by moving the ball 85 yards in 11 plays on a drive that consumed less than five minutes and featured three critical third-down conversions by Foles. The first was a 17-yard pass to Agholor on third-and-6 from the Eagles 19-yard line. Later in the drive, he threw a 14-yard completion to Ertz on third-and-1 from the New England 40-yard line. Finally, he finished the possession with a 22-yard touchdown pass to Clement on third-and-6. The touchdown was upheld upon replay review, as officials confirmed that Clement kept both feet inbounds and controlled the ball. An Elliott extra point brought the score to 29–19 in the Eagles' favor. Brady responded with a 10-play, 75-yard drive, completing all three of his passes for 61 yards, the last one a 26-yard touchdown pass to Hogan that brought the score to 29–26. The Eagles followed with an 8-play, 51-yard drive featuring a 24-yard completion from Foles to Agholor on the first play. By the end of the third quarter, the team had made it to the New England 16-yard line.

The Eagles opened the fourth quarter scoring with a Jake Elliott field goal to bring the score to 32–26. Brady then came back with another 75-yard drive featuring a 30-yard reception by Amendola and ending with a four-yard pass to Gronkowski, his second touchdown of the game, giving the Patriots their first lead of the game with the score at 33–32. On their next drive, the Eagles faced third-and-6 after two plays, but were able to keep the ball with a 7-yard catch by Ertz. Eventually they faced a fourth-and-1 on their own 45-yard line with 5:39 left in the game. Deciding to go for the conversion rather than punt, Foles completed a 2-yard pass to Ertz that kept the drive alive. Then after a 1-yard Blount run, Foles picked up three consecutive first downs with three passes to Agholor for gains of 10, 18, and 10 yards, respectively, moving the ball to the New England 14-yard line. Following a 3-yard run by Ajayi, Foles threw a 9-yard touchdown pass to Ertz with 2:21 remaining in the game. The play was held up on review Ertz lost the ball after touching the ground in the end zone, but it was determined that he established himself as a runner and maintained control of the ball as he broke the plane of the goal line. A failed two-point conversion left the Eagles with a 38–33 lead.

On the Patriots' next drive, Eagles defensive end Brandon Graham stripped the ball from Brady on the drive's second play for the game's only sack. Eagles rookie defensive end Derek Barnett recovered the ball, allowing the Eagles to run the clock down to 1:05 and force New England to use all their remaining timeouts. Elliott then kicked a 46-yard field goal, putting Philadelphia ahead by eight points, 41–33. New England needed a touchdown and two-point conversion to tie the game and send it into overtime. After nine plays (one of them a 13-yard catch by Amendola on fourth-and-10), Brady reached the 49-yard line, and with only nine seconds remaining, he threw a Hail Mary pass to the end zone as time expired. The pass was incomplete, and the Eagles won their first Vince Lombardi Trophy in franchise history, [138] and their first league championship since 1960, ending the third-longest active championship drought in the NFL at 57 years. The Philadelphia Eagles became just the second team to win a Super Bowl rematch after losing the first Super Bowl meeting (having lost to New England in Super Bowl XXXIX), and the first since the Washington Redskins defeated the Miami Dolphins in Super Bowl XVII (the Miami Dolphins defeated the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl VII). The Eagles also became the first Super Bowl champions since the 1978 Pittsburgh Steelers to defeat both Super Bowl participants from the previous year in the same postseason.

Game statistics Edit

The combined 74 points scored was one point shy of the Super Bowl record of 75, set in Super Bowl XXIX in 1995 it and this game marked only the second time in the game's history where the teams combined for 70+ points. [142] The game also set a record for most yardage by both teams (combined) with 1,151 yards, the most for any single game, regular season or postseason. [8] The game set many other Super Bowl records as well, including fewest punts from both teams (one), most yards gained by a team (613 for New England) and most points scored by a losing team (33). [8]

Nick Foles completed 28 of 43 passes for 373 yards and three touchdowns, with one interception, and caught a touchdown pass. Clement, who caught only 10 passes for 123 yards and two touchdowns during the season, was the Eagles' leading receiver with four receptions for 100 yards and a touchdown, while also rushing for eight yards. Agholor had nine receptions for 84 yards. Blount was the game's top rusher with 90 yards and a touchdown. Brady completed 28 of 48 passes for 505 yards and three touchdowns, breaking the record for most passing yards in a Super Bowl that he had set in the previous season. Amendola was his top target, with eight receptions for 152 yards, while Hogan had six for 128 yards and a touchdown and Gronkowski caught nine for 116 yards and two scores. [143]

Great recession of 2008-09:

Dow Jones index chart lost 54 % of its total value from 2007 peak to 2009 bottom. Dow lost 34 % of its value in 2008 only. This is the second largest yearly value lose in Dow Jones index and largest yearly loss after 1931.

September, 2001:

Dow jones industrial average chart lost 684.81 points or 7 .1 percent in September 17, 2001. This is the third largest one day point drop in Dow Jones history. This was the first trading day after September 11 2001 attack which is known as 9/11. Index lost 14.3 % in one week because of that event.

Dow Jones largest one day point loss (777 point):

Dow Jones industrial average lost 777 points in September 29, 2009. Dow jones index came down from 11143 to 10365 points that day. This is the largest point loss in a single day in stock market history.

Dow jones chart lost its 6.98 % value that day. Dow Jones index plunged as a $700 billion financial rescue plan was rejected by US House of Representatives.

Dow Jones 2 nd largest one day point loss (733 points):

Dow jones index suffered its 2 nd largest one day point loss in October 15 2008 and lost 733 points in a single day. Index lost 2254 points or 21 % of its value just 15 day from October 1 to October 10.

Dow Jones index chart Bottom point:

On March 9, 2009 Dow Jones index chart closed at a 6,547.05 (a new twelve-year low) and Index had lost 20% of its value in only six weeks. Investors were scared and tried to get out of the market.

As a result , we see huge volume in the monthly Dow Jones chart because of large selling and buying in the market. Volume on Dow Jones industrial chart was extremely high from September 2008 to march 2009.

In march 2009, Dow Jones monthly Volume was over 10 billion. This is also the largest volume in single month in Dow Jones history.

April 2018 Calendar

View or download the 2018 calendar.
Go to 2018 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
April 1, 20186:4019:2112h 41m
April 2, 20186:3819:2212h 44m
April 3, 20186:3719:2312h 46m
April 4, 20186:3519:2412h 49m
April 5, 20186:3419:2512h 51m
April 6, 20186:3219:2612h 54m
April 7, 20186:3019:2712h 57m
April 8, 20186:2919:2812h 59m
April 9, 20186:2719:2913h 2m
April 10, 20186:2619:3013h 4m
April 11, 20186:2419:3113h 7m
April 12, 20186:2219:3213h 10m
April 13, 20186:2119:3313h 12m
April 14, 20186:1919:3413h 15m
April 15, 20186:1819:3513h 17m
April 16, 20186:1619:3613h 20m
April 17, 20186:1519:3713h 22m
April 18, 20186:1319:3813h 25m
April 19, 20186:1219:3913h 27m
April 20, 20186:1019:4013h 30m
April 21, 20186:0919:4113h 32m
April 22, 20186:0719:4313h 36m
April 23, 20186:0619:4413h 38m
April 24, 20186:0419:4513h 41m
April 25, 20186:0319:4613h 43m
April 26, 20186:0219:4713h 45m
April 27, 20186:0019:4813h 48m
April 28, 20185:5919:4913h 50m
April 29, 20185:5819:5013h 52m
April 30, 20185:5619:5113h 55m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the April 2018 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.

The Best January Effect Trading System

My opinion here is that the Alligator trading system outperforms the other two strategies. Since the Alligator is a bit more sensitive on price moves it provided an extra fourth position. This trade happens in the middle of the year of 2014. Also, on the daily chart of BBW, the Alligator’s signals are very accurate. The Alligator managed to cope with the deep correction in the best possible way. On the other hand, the SMA strategy held us with our position until the end of the correction – which hurts! The Alligator gives a bit earlier entry signal, putting us in the market right at the beginning of the trending move.

Intermittent fasting: Surprising update

There&rsquos a ton of incredibly promising intermittent fasting (IF) research done on fat rats. They lose weight, their blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugars improve&hellip but they&rsquore rats. Studies in humans, almost across the board, have shown that IF is safe and incredibly effective, but really no more effective than any other diet. In addition, many people find it difficult to fast.

But a growing body of research suggests that the timing of the fast is key, and can make IF a more realistic, sustainable, and effective approach for weight loss, as well as for diabetes prevention.

The backstory on intermittent fasting

IF as a weight loss approach has been around in various forms for ages, but was highly popularized in 2012 by BBC broadcast journalist Dr. Michael Mosley&rsquos TV documentary Eat Fast, Live Longer and book The Fast Diet, followed by journalist Kate Harrison&rsquos book The 5:2 Diet based on her own experience, and subsequently by Dr. Jason Fung&rsquos 2016 bestseller The Obesity Code. IF generated a steady positive buzz as anecdotes of its effectiveness proliferated.

As a lifestyle-leaning research doctor, I needed to understand the science. The Obesity Code seemed the most evidence-based summary resource, and I loved it. Fung successfully combines plenty of research, his clinical experience, and sensible nutrition advice, and also addresses the socioeconomic forces conspiring to make us fat. He is very clear that we should eat more fruits and veggies, fiber, healthy protein, and fats, and avoid sugar, refined grains, processed foods, and for God&rsquos sake, stop snacking. Check, check, check, I agree. The only part that was still questionable in my mind was the intermittent fasting part.

Intermittent fasting can help weight loss

IF makes intuitive sense. The food we eat is broken down by enzymes in our gut and eventually ends up as molecules in our bloodstream. Carbohydrates, particularly sugars and refined grains (think white flours and rice), are quickly broken down into sugar, which our cells use for energy. If our cells don&rsquot use it all, we store it in our fat cells as, well, fat. But sugar can only enter our cells with insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas. Insulin brings sugar into the fat cells and keeps it there.

Between meals, as long as we don&rsquot snack, our insulin levels will go down and our fat cells can then release their stored sugar, to be used as energy. We lose weight if we let our insulin levels go down. The entire idea of IF is to allow the insulin levels to go down far enough and for long enough that we burn off our fat.

Intermittent fasting can be hard&hellip but maybe it doesn&rsquot have to be

Initial human studies that compared fasting every other day to eating less every day showed that both worked about equally for weight loss, though people struggled with the fasting days. So, I had written off IF as no better or worse than simply eating less, only far more uncomfortable. My advice was to just stick with the sensible, plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet.

New research is suggesting that not all IF approaches are the same, and some are actually very reasonable, effective, and sustainable, especially when combined with a nutritious plant-based diet. So I&rsquom prepared to take my lumps on this one (and even revise my prior post).

We have evolved to be in sync with the day/night cycle, i.e., a circadian rhythm. Our metabolism has adapted to daytime food, nighttime sleep. Nighttime eating is well associated with a higher risk of obesity, as well as diabetes.

Based on this, researchers from the University of Alabama conducted a study with a small group of obese men with prediabetes. They compared a form of intermittent fasting called "early time-restricted feeding," where all meals were fit into an early eight-hour period of the day (7 am to 3 pm),or spread out over 12 hours (between 7 am and 7 pm). Both groups maintained their weight (did not gain or lose) but after five weeks, the eight-hours group had dramatically lower insulin levels and significantly improved insulin sensitivity, as well as significantly lower blood pressure. The best part? The eight-hours group also had significantly decreased appetite. They weren&rsquot starving.

Just changing the timing of meals, by eating earlier in the day and extending the overnight fast, significantly benefited metabolism even in people who didn&rsquot lose a single pound.

Why might changing timing help?

But why does simply changing the timing of our meals to allow for fasting make a difference in our body? An in-depth review of the science of IF recently published in New England Journal of Medicine sheds some light. Fasting is evolutionarily embedded within our physiology, triggering several essential cellular functions. Flipping the switch from a fed to fasting state does more than help us burn calories and lose weight. The researchers combed through dozens of animal and human studies to explain how simple fasting improves metabolism, lowering blood sugar lessens inflammation, which improves a range of health issues from arthritic pain to asthma and even helps clear out toxins and damaged cells, which lowers risk for cancer and enhances brain function. The article is deep, but worth a read!

So, is intermittent fasting as good as it sounds?

I was very curious about this, so I asked the opinion of metabolic expert Dr. Deborah Wexler, Director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Center and associate professor at Harvard Medical School. Here is what she told me. "There is evidence to suggest that the circadian rhythm fasting approach, where meals are restricted to an eight to 10-hour period of the daytime, is effective," she confirmed, though generally she recommends that people "use an eating approach that works for them and is sustainable to them."

So, here&rsquos the deal. There is some good scientific evidence suggesting that circadian rhythm fasting, when combined with a healthy diet and lifestyle, can be a particularly effective approach to weight loss, especially for people at risk for diabetes. (However, people with advanced diabetes or who are on medications for diabetes, people with a history of eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia, and pregnant or breastfeeding women should not attempt intermittent fasting unless under the close supervision of a physician who can monitor them.)

4 ways to use this information for better health

  1. Avoid sugars and refined grains. Instead, eat fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats (a sensible, plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet).
  2. Let your body burn fat between meals. Don&rsquot snack. Be active throughout your day. Build muscle tone.
  3. Consider a simple form of intermittent fasting. Limit the hours of the day when you eat, and for best effect, make it earlier in the day (between 7 am to 3 pm, or even 10 am to 6 pm, but definitely not in the evening before bed).
  4. Avoid snacking or eating at nighttime, all the time.


Effects of intermittent fasting on health, aging, and disease. de Cabo R, Mattonson MP. New England Journal of Medicine, December 2019.

YouTube usage statistics

500 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute.

We watch over 1 billion hours of YouTube videos a day, more than Netflix and Facebook video combined.

70% of YouTube views come from mobile devices.

The average mobile viewing session lasts more than 40 minutes.

The first video to hit one million views was a Nike advert featuring Ronaldinho.

The video with the highest number of views is currently the music video for ‘Despacito’ by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee. It has over 6.6bn views.

It took Gangnam Style, a previous most watched video, five months to hit 1 billion views. In comparison, Despacito took just 97 days.

The video with the most views that isn’t a music video is ‘Masha and The Bear – Recipe for disaster (Episode 17)’ by Get Movies. It currently has over 4bn views.

The most subscribed to YouTube channels belong to T-Series, followed by PewDiePie, and Cocomelon – Nursery Rhymes (not included YouTube’s automatically generated channels).

The most-watched video of 2019 was Con Calma by Daddy Yankee & Snow. (Source: BuzzSumo YouTube Analyzer)

The most-upvoted video of 2019 was Señorita by Shawn Mendes and Camila Cabello. (Source: BuzzSumo YouTube Analyzer)

The most-downvoted video of 2019 was YouTube’s own 2019 rewind. Ouch. (Source: BuzzSumo YouTube Analyzer)

Over half of YouTube users use the site to work out how to do things they’ve not done before: