Battle of Wattignies, 15-16 October 1793

Battle of Wattignies, 15-16 October 1793

Battle of Wattignies, 15-16 October 1793

The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France. Throughout the summer of 1793 the Allies (Austria, Holland, Britain and an increasingly unenthusiastic Prussia, supported by German troops in British pay) had attacked and captured the French fortresses at Condé, Valenciennes and Quesnoy. Defeats at Hondschoote (8 September) and Menin (13 September) had been followed by a victory, again at Menin (15 September) which had restored the situation, and the Allied commander (the Prince of Saxe-Coburg) decided to besiege Maubeuge.

The French saw this as a direct threat to Paris, for Maubeuge was a key post in their line of border fortifications, and protected a good road to Paris. Its fall would have opened up a sizable gap in the defended frontier. Command of the Armée-du-Nord was given to General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, while Lazare Carnot, the 'Organizer of Victory', and minister of war on the Committee of Public Safety, accompanied the army. At first Jourdan had 45,000 men in his mobile army, with another 45,000 spread out in a line to the sea, but by the time of the battle he may have had as many as 60,000 men available at Wattignies (although this figure may include the garrison of Maubeuge, who failed to support the fighting at Wattignies).

Sources differ on the size of the Allied army at Maubeuge, with figures for the besieging force ranging from 14,000 to 26,000 and for the covering force from 26,000 to 37,000. The Allied force involved in the battle only included part of the covering force, probably around 21,000 men. This covering force was posted to the south of Maubeuge, on the southern side of the Sambre.

The Austrian line ran from Wattignies at the left (eastern end), through Dourlers in the centre, to Saint-Remy-Chaussée and Monceau-Saint-Waast at the right (western end), a distance of about eight miles. The French approached this line up the road through Avesnes, which passed through the centre of the Austrian line and on to Maubeuge.

Jourdan claimed to have been solely responsible for the French strategy at Wattignies. This seems unlikely when Carnot was present with the army, and at least on the first day of the battle was not an overly impressive claim. On 15 October the French attacked along the entire Allied line. The battle started with an attack on both flanks, General Fromentin attacking on the left and General Duquesnoy on the right. At first these flank attacks both made good progress, and Jourdan sent General Balland to attack the centre of the Allied line. This was where Clairfayt had posted his reserves, and the attack failed. On the right Dusquesnoy's attack became bogged down, while on the left Fromentin moved too far to the west, heading towards Berlaimont, leaving his flanks vulnerable to a cavalry attack.

On the second day of the battle the French decided to concentrate their efforts against Wattignies, at the left of the Allied line. Sources differ on whether Saxe-Coburg strengthened this flank, but even if he did the French were able to concentrate around 20,000 men for this flank attack, almost as many men as were present in the entire Allied covering force.

The new French infantry showed a great deal of resolve at Wattignies. A number of attacks were repulsed by the Austrians, and at one stage a cavalry charge hit the side of Gratien's brigade, causing a brief panic, but the situation was restored by Carnot and Dusquesnoy. Jourdan then led a final coordinated attack on the Austrian left, which forced them out of Wattignies. The French left and centre were then able to move onto the attack, and the Allies were forced out of their entire lines.

Estimates of the numbers of casualties suffered on both sides vary widely, from an estimate of 3,000 killed and wounded on both sides, rising to 5,000 Allied and 8,000 French casualties. Given that the inexperienced French infantry won the day through repeated assaults, described by Saxe-Coburg as fighting like madmen it seems likely that the French losses were indeed higher than those of the Allies.

The repeated assaults left the French army too exhausted to pursue the defeated Allies, and the garrison of Maubeuge missed the chance to prevent them from crossing the Sambre. The siege was raised, and the victory was hailed as a second Valmy (the village is now called Wattignies-la-Victoirie). The Allies had been prevented from creating a sizable gap in the line of French border fortifications, but Saxe-Coburg only pulled back as far as Bavay, five miles to the west. The period of French success was short-lived, ending with the failed siege of Nieuport (22-29 October). Both armies then went into winter quarters, a decision that cost Jourdan his command. Wattignies was a great morale boost for the French, and is normally portrayed as having saved France from an invasion, although given Saxe-Coburg's careful record it is unlikely that the fall of Maubeuge would have been followed by a winter march on Paris. Perhaps the most significant feature of the battle is that it marked the first occasion on which the new Revolutionary conscript armies of France showed that they could manoeuvre with any skill.

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Second coalition (1798-1802)

England took the initiative to bring together this coalition. It did so from September 1798 to March 1799, gaining Russian alliances (following the capture of Malta, whose Tsar Paul 1 was the protector, by the French troops sailing to Egypt), Ottoman (in response to the invasion of Egypt), Austrian (after the declaration of war of the French Directory in March 1799, following the free passage offered by the Holy Roman Empire to the Russian troops), Neapolitan and Swedish. Some German principalities completed the system.

The war began with setbacks for the Republic. Alexander Suvorov, in August 1799, drove out the French from Italy. But French victory of Zürich on the Austro-Russians (André Masséna, 25-26 September 1799) and the capitulation of the Anglo-Russian expeditionary force in Alkmaar, Holland (October 18, 1799) restored the situation.

A few months after his return from Egypt, Napoleon Bonaparte passed the Alps at the head of the Army (Grand Saint-Bernard Pass, May 1800) and inflicted to the Austrians the defeat of Marengo (which saw the death of Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, main responsible of victory).

At the end of the year, on December 3rd, 1800, Jean Victor Marie Moreau won the decisive victory of Hohenlinden, forcing Austria to treat.

The Peace of Luneville (February 9, 1801) recognized again to France the possession of the left bank of the Rhine river to which was added Italy except Venice.

The King of Naples signed the peace in his turn, on March 18, 1801 (Treaty of Florence). Having little interest in promoting hegemonic views of England on seas and on trade, Russia imitated him, on October 8, 1801, by signing the Treaty of Paris.

Isolated again, Britain, exhausted, agreed to sign the Treaty of Amiens (March 25, 1802). It rendered to France all its colonies but avoided to rule on the French acquisitions on the continent.

France was in peace for the first time since April 20, 1792.

  • September 25 & 26, 1799 - Battle of Zürich.
  • October 18, 1799 - Capitulation of Alkmaar.
  • June 14, 1800 - Battle of Marengo.
  • December 3rd, 1800 - Battle of Hohenlinden.
  • February 9, 1801 - Treaty of Lunéville.
  • March 18, 1801 - Treaty of Florence.
  • October 8, 1801 - Treaty of Paris (with Russia).
  • October 9, 1801 - Treaty of Paris (with Ottoman Empire).
  • March 25, 1802 - Treaty of Amiens.

Battle of Wattignies, 15-16 October 1793 - History

Take a look at these important events in the month of October, that changed world history.

October 1

1787 – Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn.

1791 – First session of the French Legislative Assembly.

1795 – Belgium is conquered by France.

1800 – Spain cedes Louisiana to France via the Treaty of San Ildefonso.

1811 – The first steamboat to sail the Mississippi River arrives in New Orleans.

1814 – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon the previous spring.

1827 – Russo-Persian War: The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.

1829 – South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa it will later separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.

1832 – Texian political delegates convened at San Felipe de Austin to petition for changes in the governance of Mexican Texas.

October 2

1780 – John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War, is hanged as a spy by American forces.

1789 – George Washington sends proposed Constitutional amendments (The United States Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification.

1814 – Battle of Rancagua: Spanish Royalists troops under Mariano Osorio defeats rebel Chilean forces of Bernardo O'Higgins and José Miguel Carrera.

1835 – The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales: Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.

October 3

1683 – The Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang reaches Taiwan (under the Kingdom of Tungning) to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan after the Battle of Penghu.

1712 – The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.

1739 – The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War, 1736–39.

1778 – Captain James Cook anchors in Alaska.

1789 – George Washington makes the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the United States of America.

1835 – The Staedtler company is founded in Nuremberg, Germany.

October 4

1693 – Battle of Marsaglia: Piedmontese troops are defeated by the French.

1725 – Foundation of Rosario in Argentina.

1777 – Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe.

1779 – The Fort Wilson Riot takes place.

1795 – Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence with a "Whiff of Grapeshot", using cannon to suppress armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the French Legislature (National Convention).

1824 – Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.

1830 – Creation of the Kingdom of Belgium after separation from the Netherlands.

October 5

1665 – The University of Kiel is founded.

1789 – French Revolution: Women of Paris march to Versailles in the March on Versailles to confront Louis XVI of France about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the King and his court moved to Paris.

1793 – French Revolution: Christianity is disestablished in France.

1813 – Battle of the Thames in Canada Americans defeat British and kill Shawnee leader Tecumseh.

October 6

1683 – German immigrant families found Germantown in the colony of Pennsylvania, marking the first major immigration of German people to America.

1723 – Benjamin Franklin arrives in Philadelphia at the age of 17.

1762 – Seven Years' War: conclusion of the Battle of Manila between Britain and Spain, which resulted in the British occupation of Manila for the rest of the war.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: General Sir Henry Clinton leads British forces in the capture of Continental Army Hudson River defenses in the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery.

1789 – French Revolution: Louis XVI returns to Paris from Versailles after being confronted by the Parisian women on 5 October

October 7

1691 – The English royal charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued.

1763 – King George III of the United Kingdom issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements.

1776 – Crown Prince Paul of Russia marries Sophie Marie Dorothea of Württemberg.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain: American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina.

1800 – French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d'août.

1826 – The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S.

1828 – Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese under General Maison.

1840 – Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands.

October 8

1806 – Napoleonic Wars: Forces of the British Empire lay siege to the port of Boulogne in France by using Congreve rockets, invented by Sir William Congreve.

1813 – The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.

1821 – The government of general José de San Martín establishes the Peruvian Navy.

1829 – Rail transport: Stephenson's The Rocket wins The Rainhill Trials.

October 9

1701 – The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook, Connecticut.

1708 – Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya.

1740 – Dutch colonists and various slave groups begin massacring ethnic Chinese in Batavia, eventually killing 10,000 and leading to a two-year-long war throughout Java.

1760 – Seven Years' War: Russian forces occupy Berlin.

1767 – Surveying for the Mason–Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed.

1771 – The Dutch merchant ship Vrouw Maria sinks near the coast of Finland.

1799 – Sinking of HMS Lutine with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000.

1804 – Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded.

1806 – Prussia declares war on France.

1812 – War of 1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces captured two British ships: HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia.

1820 – Guayaquil declares independence from Spain.

1824 – Slavery is abolished in Costa Rica.

1831 – Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first head of state of independent Greece is assassinated.

1834 – Opening of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, the first public railway on the island of Ireland.

October 10

1760 – In a treaty with the Dutch colonial authorities, the Ndyuka people of Suriname – descended from escaped slaves – gain territorial autonomy.

1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000–30,000 in the Caribbean.

October 11

1727 – George II and Caroline of Ansbach are crowned King and Queen of Great Britain.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Valcour Island – On Lake Champlain a fleet of American boats is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777.

1793 - Yellow fever breaks out in Philadelphia

1797 – Battle of Camperdown: Naval battle between Royal Navy and Royal Netherlands Navy during the French Revolutionary Wars. The outcome of the battle was a decisive British victory.

1809 – Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand.

1811 – Inventor John Stevens' boat, the Juliana, begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service between New York City, New York, and Hoboken, New Jersey).

1833 – A big demonstration at the gates of the legislature of Buenos Aires forces the ousting of governor Juan Ramón Balcarce and his replacement with Juan José Viamonte.

October 12

1692 – The Salem witch trials are ended by a letter from Massachusetts Governor William Phips.

1748 – British and Spanish naval forces engage at the Battle of Havana during the War of Jenkins's Ear.

1773 – America's first insane asylum opens for 'Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds' in Virginia.

1792 – First celebration of Columbus Day in the USA held in New York City.

1793 – The cornerstone of Old East, the oldest state university building in the United States, is laid on the campus of the University of North Carolina.

1799 – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse was the first woman to jump from a balloon with a parachute, from an altitude of 900 meters.

1810 – First Oktoberfest: The Bavarian royalty invites the citizens of Munich to join the celebration of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.

1822 – Pedro I of Brazil is proclaimed the emperor of the Empire of Brazil.

1823 – Charles Macintosh of Scotland sells the first raincoat.

October 13

1710 – Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.

1773 – The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.

1775 – The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

1792 – In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.

1812 – War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights – As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.

October 14

1656 – Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The marriage of church-and-state in Puritanism makes them regard the Quakers as spiritually apostate and politically subversive.

1758 – Seven Years' War: Austria defeats Prussia at the Battle of Hochkirch.

1773 – The first recorded Ministry of Education, the Commission of National Education, is formed in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1773 – Just before the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, several of the British East India Company's tea ships are set ablaze at the old seaport of Annapolis, Maryland.

1805 – Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria.

1806 – Battle of Jena–Auerstedt France defeats Prussia.

1808 – The Republic of Ragusa is annexed by France.

1812 – Work on London's Regent's Canal starts.

October 15

1764 – Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 – The Montgolfier brothers' hot air balloon (tethered) makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.

1793 – Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.

1815 – Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

October 16

1780 – Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont are the last major raids of the American Revolutionary War.

1781 – George Washington captures Yorktown, Virginia after the Siege of Yorktown.

1793 – Marie Antoinette, widow of Louis XVI, is guillotined at the height of the French Revolution.

1793 – The Battle of Wattignies ends in a French victory.

1813 – The Sixth Coalition attacks Napoleon Bonaparte in the Battle of Leipzig.

1834 – Much of the ancient structure of the Palace of Westminster in London burns to the ground.

October 17

1662 – Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to France for 40,000 pounds.

1771 – Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, age 15.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.

1781 – American Revolutionary War: British General Lord Charles Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown.

1800 – Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao.

1806 – Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I of Haiti is assassinated after an oppressive rule.

1814 – Eight people die in the London Beer Flood.

October 18

1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization.

1748 – Signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession.

1775 – African-American poet Phillis Wheatley is freed from slavery.

1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Burning of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine) prompts the Continental Congress to establish the Continental Navy.

1779 – American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah is lifted.

1797 – Treaty of Campo Formio is signed between France and Austria

October 19

1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, representatives of British commander Lord Cornwallis handed over Cornwallis' sword and formally surrendered to George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau.

1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to the Grande Armée of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Ulm. 30,000 prisoners are captured and 10,000 casualties inflicted on the losers.

1812 – Napoleon Bonaparte retreats from Moscow.

1813 – The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.

1822 – In Parnaíba Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declare the independent state of Piauí.

October 20

1720 – Caribbean pirate Calico Jack is captured by the Royal Navy.

1740 – Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.

1781 – Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Habsburg Monarchy.

1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

1805 – General Mack's army surrender to Napoleon I at Ulm after a few skirmishes.

1818 – The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

1827 – Battle of Navarino: a combined Turkish and Egyptian armada is defeated by British, French, and Russian naval force in the port of Navarino in Pylos, Greece.

October 21

1774 – First display of the word "Liberty" on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.

1797 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.

1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Vice Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve, signaling almost the end of French maritime power and leaves Britain's navy unchallenged until the 20th century.

1816 – The Penang Free School is founded in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, by the Rev Hutchings, the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia.

1824 – Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.

October 22

1707 – Scilly naval disaster: four British Royal Navy ships run aground near the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell and thousands of sailors drown.

1730 – Construction of the Ladoga Canal is completed.

1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank.

1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.

1790 – Warriors of the Miami tribe under Chief Little Turtle defeat United States troops under General Josiah Harmar at the site of present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the Northwest Indian War.

1797 – André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump from one thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris.

1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.

October 23

1694 – British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.

1707 – The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

1739 – War of Jenkins' Ear starts: British Prime Minister Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.

1812 – Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he is now the commandant of Paris.

October 24

1795 – Partitions of Poland: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is completely divided among Austria, Prussia, and Russia.

1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow.

October 25

1747 – British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre.

1760 – George III becomes King of Great Britain.

1812 – War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian.

1822 – Greek War of Independence: The First Siege of Missolonghi begins.

1828 – St Katharine Docks open in London.

October 26

1689 – General Piccolomini of Austria burns down Skopje to prevent the spread of cholera. He died of cholera himself soon after.

1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns in Philadelphia.

1775 – King George III of Great Britain goes before Parliament to declare the American colonies in rebellion, and authorized a military response to quell the American Revolution.

1776 – Benjamin Franklin departs from America for France on a mission to seek French support for the American Revolution.

1811 – The Argentine government declare the freedom of expression for the press by decree.

1813 – War of 1812: A combined force of British regulars, Canadian militia, and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of the Chateauguay.

1825 – The Erie Canal opens: Passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie.

October 27

1682 – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.

1795 – The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S.

1806 – The French Army entered Berlin, following the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt.

1810 – United States annexed the former Spanish colony of West Florida.

1827 – Bellini's third opera, Il pirata, is premiered at Teatro alla Scala di Milano

1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated.

October 28

1664 – The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.

1707 – The 1707 Hōei earthquake causes more than 5,000 deaths in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyūshū, Japan

1775 – American Revolutionary War: A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains: British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans.

1834 – The Battle of Pinjarra is fought in the Swan River Colony in present-day Pinjarra, Western Australia. Between 14 and 40 Aborigines are killed by British colonists.

1835 – The United Tribes of New Zealand is established with the signature of the Declaration of Independence.

October 29

1675 – Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.

1787 – Mozart's opera Don Giovanni receives its first performance in Prague.

1792 – Mount Hood (Oregon) is named after the British naval officer Alexander Arthur Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who spotted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.

October 30

1806 – Believing he is facing a much larger force, Prussian Lieutenant General Friedrich von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrendered the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers commanded by General Lassalle.

1817 – The independent government of Venezuela is established by Simón Bolívar.

1831 – In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.

October 31

1776 - King George III speaks for first time before the British Parliament since the American Colonies declared their independence.

1776 - General George Washington withdraws his forces to New Jersey before British General Howe could attack again with newly arrived reinforcements.

1822 – Emperor Agustín de Iturbide attempts to dissolve the Congress of the Mexican Empire.


October 16th

456 – Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Roman Empire.
1311 – Council of Vienne (15th ecumenical council) opens
1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although a woman.
1492 – Columbus’ fleet anchors at “Fernandina” (Long Island, Bahamas)
1502 – Storm ravages Friese coast
1551 – English Edward Seymour duke of Somerset re-arrested
1600 – Olivier van Noorts ships reach Philippines
1674 – Emperor Leopold I fires chancellor Furst Wenzel Lobkowitz
1710 – British troops occupies Port Royal, Nova Scotia
1757 – Austrian troops occupy Berlin
1775 – Portland, Maine burned by British
1780 – Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont last major raid of the American Revolutionary War.
1781 – Washington takes Yorktown
1793 – Battle of Wattignies.
1795 – M von Böhms “Oorlogscantate” premieres
1813 – Battle of Leipzig, largest battle in Europe prior to WWI,Napoleon’s forces defeated by Prussia, Austria & Russia
1829 – Tremont Hotel, 1st US modern hotel opens (Boston)
French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte

1834 – Much of the ancient structures of the Palace of Westminster (parliament) in London is burnt down.
1841 – Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, is chartered
1843 – Sir William Rowan Hamilton comes up with the idea of quaternions, a non-commutative extension of complex numbers.
1846 – Dentist William T Morton demonstrates effectiveness of ether
1847 – Charlotte Brontë’s book “Jane Eyre” published
1848 – 1st US homeopathic medical college opens in Pennsylvania
1849 – Avery College establishes in Allegheny, Pennsylvania
1849 – British seize Tigre Island in Gulf of Fonseca from Honduras
1852 – Dutch government recognize Catholics right to organize
1859 – John Brown leads 21 in raid on federal arsenal, Harper’s Ferry, Va
1861 – Confederacy starts selling postage stamps
1863 – Grant is given command of Union forces in West
Abolitionist John Brown

1867 – Alaska adopts Gregorian calendar, crosses intl date line
1869 – Hotel in Boston becomes 1st to have indoor plumbing
1875 – 1st Quebec vs Ontario football game, Ontario wins
1875 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.
1876 – Race riot at Cainhoy SC (5 whites & 1 black killed)
1882 – The Nickel Plate Railroad opens for business.
1900 – Queen Wilhelmina leaves duke Heinrich “Henry” von Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1900 – Great Britain and Germany sign the Anglo-German Treaty, in which they agree to maintain the territorial integrity of China and support the ‘open door’ policy called for by US secretary of State
1901 – Baron Hayashi of Japan begins negotiations in London to make an alliance with the British and strengthen Japan’s position against Russians
1903 – Homel, 1st Jewish self defense organization founded in Russia

Founder of Salt Lake City and President of the LDS Church Brigham Young

1904 – Russian Baltic fleet departs to Port Arthur
1905 – The Partition of Bengal (India) occurred.
1907 – Belasco Theater opens at 111 W 44th St NYC
1907 – David Belasco’s “Grand Army Man,” premieres in NYC
1908 – Edmonton Rugby Foot-ball Club re-organizes as Esquimoux
1909 – Jack Johnson KOs Stanley Ketchel in 12 for heavyweight boxing title
1909 – Pirates beat Tigers 4 games to 3 in 6th World Series
1912 – Arnold Schoenberg’s “Pierrot Lunaire,” premieres
1912 – Boston beats NY Giants, 4 games to 3 with a tie in 9th World Series
1913 – Booth Theater opens at 222 W 44th St NYC
1915 – Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria
1916 – Dodger manager Wilbert Robinson given $5,000 bonus
1916 – Margaret Sanger opens 1st birth control clinic (46 Amboy St, Bkln)
1916 – T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) meets with Fasal Hoessein
1921 – Babe Ruth, Bob Meusel, & Bill Piercy defy Landis ban on World Series
Soldier and Writer T. E. Lawrence

1921 – Jim Conzelman takes over as coach of Rock Island Independents from Frank Coughlin-only mid-game coaching change in NFL history
1923 – Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio founded
1923 – John Harwood patents self-winding watch (Switzerland)
1925 – Peace accord of Locarno signed (Rhine Pact)
1925 – Texas School Board prohibits teaching of evolution
1926 – Mohammed Nadir Khan begins coup in Afghanistan, 1200 killed
1926 – Troop ship sinks in Yangtze River, killing 1,200
1928 – Mickey Cochrane wins AL MVP honors, edging Heinie Manush by 2 points
1931 – Trunk murderess Winnie Ruth Judd chops 1st
1934 – Mao Zedong & 25,000 troops begin 6,000 mile Long March
1936 – Lou Gehrig, is voted AL MVP by BBWAA
1939 – Sugar rationing begins in Netherlands
1940 – Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr named 1st black general in regular army
Baseball Player Lou Gehrig

1940 – Lottery for 1st US WW II draftees held #158 drawn 1st
1940 – Warsaw Ghetto forms
1941 – “Gordo” comic strip (by Gus Arriola) 1st appears in newspapers
1941 – Germany advances within 60 miles (96 K) of Moscow
1941 – Romanian Legionnaires enter Odessa, Russia
1942 – Aaron Copland/de Milles ballet “Rodeo,” premieres in NYC
1942 – Cyclone in Bay of Bengal kills some 40,000 south of Calcutta India
1942 – Natl Boxing Association freezes titles of those serving in armed services
1943 – Anti Jewish riot in Rome
1943 – Chicago Mayor Ed Kelly opens city’s new subway system
1943 – Jewish quarter of Rome surrounded by Nazis, they are sent to Auschwitz
1943 – US 1st Army establishes headquarter in Bristol
Composer Aaron Copland

1944 – Hungary: Horthy government falls/nazi count Szalasi becomes premier
1945 – UN’s Food & Agriculture Organization comes into existence
1946 – 10 Nazi leaders hanged as war criminals after Nuremberg trials
1948 – “Red Mill” opens at Ziegfeld Theater NYC for 831 performances
1948 – Demonstration by Moscow Jews honoring Israeli ambassador Golda Meir
1949 – WDAF TV channel 4 in Kansas City, MO (NBC) begins broadcasting
1949 – 1st NASCAR Sprint Cup: Red Byron wins
1950 – The first edition of C.S. Lewis’ “The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe” is released in London
1951 – The first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, is assassinated in Rawalpindi.
1952 – Pakistan’s 1st Test starts, v India at Delhi
1952 – Woolworth’s at Powell & Market (SF) opens
Cuban President Fidel Castro

1953 – Fidel Castro sentenced to 15 years (Havana)
1956 – “Love Me Tender” with Elvis Presley premieres
1956 – William J Brennan Jr becomes a Supreme Court Justice
1957 – Queen Elizabeth & Prince Philip visits Williamsburg Virginia
1957 – USAF sends 2 aluminium bullets into space
1958 – Benjamin Britten’s “Nocturne,” premieres
1958 – US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1960 – NL votes to admit Houston & NY to league
1962 – Byron R White becomes a Supreme Court Justice
1962 – Cuban missile crisis begins as JFK becomes aware of missiles in Cuba
1962 – KTXT TV channel 5 in Lubbock, TX (PBS) begins broadcasting
1962 – Yanks (20th championship) beat SF Giants 4 games to 3 in World Series
1962 – NY Yankees appear in 12 & win 9 of last 14 World Series
1963 – 2 secret US military satellites launched from Cape Canaveral
35th US President John F. Kennedy

1963 – NY newspaper “Mirror” last edition
1964 – China becomes world’s 5th nuclear power
1964 – Harold Wilson’s Labour party wins British election
1964 – Indians’ directors vote to keep franchise in Cleveland, rejecting bids by Seattle, Oakland & Dallas
1965 – “Drat! – The Cat!” closes at Martin Beck Theater NYC after 8 perfs
1966 – Joean Baez & 123 other anti-draft protestors arrested in Oakland
1967 – WETK TV channel 33 in Burlington, VT (PBS) begins broadcasting
1967 – WGNO TV channel 26 in New Orleans, LA (ABC) begins broadcasting
1968 – China reports removal of president Li Sjao-tji
1968 – Czechoslovakia & Russian “accord” rules allies Soviet forces
1968 – During Olympics Tommie Smith & John Carlos give black power salute
1968 – Milwaukee Bucks play their 1st game losing 89-84 to Chicago Bulls
1968 – Jim Dorey sets Toronto Maple Leaf penalty records (48 mins on 9 penalties in a game & 44 minutes on 7 penalties in a period)
1968 – The People’s Democracy (PD), formed on Oct 9, organise a march of 1,300 students from the Queen’s University of Belfast to the City Hall in the centre of the city, Northern Ireland
1969 – 100-1 shot NY Mets beat Orioles 5-3 & win 66th World Series in 5
1969 – Soyuz 6 returns to Earth
1969 – Met Cleon Jones awarded 1st base when shoe polish on ball proves he is hit by a pitch, he scores on a HR in World Series
1970 – Anwar Sadat elected president of Egypt, succeeding Gamal Abdel Nasser
Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau

1970 – Pierre Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act as a response to the October Crisis, the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act in Canadian history.
1971 – Amphitheater in McLaren Park is dedicated in SF
1972 – “Pacific Paradise” opens at Palace Theater NYC for 5 performances
1972 – Creedence Clearwater Revival breaks up
1972 – 2 members of the Offical Irish Republican Army are shot dead by the British Army in County Tyrone
1972 – A Protestant youth member (15) of the Ulster Defence Association, and a UDA member (26) are run over by British Army vehicles during riots in east Belfast
1973 – Israeli tanks under Gen Sharon move through Suez Canal
1973 – Kissinger & Le Duc Tho jointly awarded Nobel peace prize
1973 – Maynard Jackson elected 1st black mayor of Atlanta
1973 – Monks Heng Yo & Heng Ju, start 1000 mile SF to Seattle pilgrimage
1973 – The Gulf Six (Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar) unilaterally raise the posted price of Saudi Light marker crude-oil by 17 percent
1974 – As’ Ken Holtzman, who hasn’t batted all season, belts 3rd inning home run in Game 4 & gets the win, 5-2
1976 – Soyuz 23 returns to Earth
1976 – Toronto Maple Leaf Lanny McDonald scores a hat trick in 2 min 54 sec
1978 – Nobel prize for economy awarded to Herbert A Simon
264th Pope John Paul II

1978 – Polish Cardinal Karol Wojtyla elected Pope John Paul II
1978 – Test debut of Kapil Dev, India v Pakistan at Faisalabad
1980 – “Brigadoon” opens at Majestic Theater NYC for 133 performances
1980 – China performs nuclear test at Lop Nor, PRC
1981 – 2nd Dutch government of Van Agt resigns
1981 – Harvey Fierstein’s “Torch Song Trilogy,” premieres in NYC
1982 – Devils 1st road victory 6-5 over Penguins
1982 – Mt Palomar Observatory 1st to detect Halley’s comet on 13th return
1982 – Shultz warns US will withdraw from UN if they vote to exclude Israel
1982 – USSR performs underground nuclear test
1983 – “Zorba” opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 362 performances
1983 – 25th Ryder Cup: US, 14½-13½ at PGA National Golf Club (Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, US)
Cricketer Kapil Dev

1983 – Balt Orioles beat Philadelphia Phillies, 4 games to 3 in 80th World Series
1984 – Baboon heart transplanted into a 15-day-old baby girl
1984 – Desmond Tutu, South Afrian Anglican Archbishop, wins Nobel Peace Prize
1985 – Challenger vehicle moves to launch pad for STS 61A mission
1985 – Intel introduces 32-bit 80386 microcomputer chip
1985 – KC Royals & St Louis Cardinals win their league championships
1985 – Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Herbert Hauptman & Jerome Karle
1985 – MLB National League Championship: St. Louis Cardinals beat Los Angeles Dodgers, 4 games to 2
1985 – MLB American League Championship: Kansas City Royals beat Toronto Blue Jays, 4 games to 3
1986 – “Raggedy Ann” opens at Nederlander Theater NYC for 5 performances
1986 – Armand Hammer returns to US with Jewish refusenik David Goldfarb
1986 – US government closes down due to budget problems
1986 – US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1987 – 175-kph winds cause blackout in London, much of southern England
1987 – 338,500,000 shares traded on NY stock exchange (record)
1987 – Dow Jones for 1st time falls more than 100 pts (108.35)
1987 – Jessica McClure rescued 58 hrs after falling 22′ into a well shaft
Heavyweight Boxing Champion Mike Tyson

1987 – Mike Tyson TKOs Tyrell Biggs in 7 for heavyweight boxing title
1987 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1987 – Great Storm of 1987: hurricane force winds to hit much of the South of England killing 23 people.
1988 – “Smile Jamaica” concert for Hurricane Gilbert victims held in London
1988 – Orel Hirsheiser, 1st to pitch shutout in playoff & World Series
1989 – Bikenibau Paeniu installed as premier of Tuvalu
1989 – Jan Syse becomes premier of Norway
1990 – “Stand Up Tragedy” closes at Criterion Theater NYC after 13 perfs
1990 – Reds Eric Davis is 22nd player to homer in his 1st World Series at bat
1990 – Reds beat A’s 7-0, ending Oakland’s 10-game post-season winning streak
1990 – US forces reach 200,000 in Persian Gulf
1991 – George Jo Hennard, 35, kills 23 & himself & wounds 20 in Texas
1991 – US Supreme Court begins to hear Joseph Doherty case
1991 – Dallas Mavericks Roy Tarpley becomes 7th to be banned from NBA for life under the league’s anti-drug agreement
1991 – Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha is founded at a conference in Ranchi, India.
Comedian and Television Host David Letterman

1992 – 1,700th David Letterman Show
1992 – 1964 “Gilligan’s Island” TV pilot 1st shown on TV (TBS)
1993 – General Omar al-Bashir appointed Sudan president
1993 – IRA bomb attack on fish & chips restaurant in Belfast, 10 killed
1993 – Anti-Nazi riot breaks out in Welling in Kent, after police stop protesters approaching British National Party headquarters
1994 – Raul Julia, actor (Addams Family), suffers a stroke
1995 – Allan Donald takes 8-71 as South Africa defeat Zimbabwe
1995 – Brian Lara scores 169 in Sharjah ODI versus Sri Lanka
1995 – Million Man March held in Washington, D.C. (over 830,000 African American men attend)
1995 – ODI in Sharjah WI 7-333 in 50 overs beat Sri Lanka 329 all out
1996 – Eighty-four people are killed and more than 180 injured as 47,000 football fans attempt to squeeze into the 36,000-seat Estadio Mateo Flores in Guatemala City.
1997 – “Side Show,” opens at Richard Rodgers Theater NYC for 91 performances
1998 – Former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a warrant from Spain requesting his extradition on murder charges.
2000 – MLB National League Championship: New York Mets beat St. Louis Cardinals, 4 games to 1
2001 – The US Coast Guard lifts a ban on liquefied natural gas (LNG) tankers entering Boston Harbor to makes deliveries to Distrigas’ Everett LNG terminal that had been imposed on September 26 in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11
2002 – Bibliotheca Alexandrina in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, is officially inaugurated.
2003 – MLB American League Championship: New York Yankees beat Boston Red Sox, 4 games to 3
2005 – 56th Formula One WDC: Fernando Alonso wins by 21 points
2005 – MLB American League Championship: Chicago White Sox beat Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, 4 games to 1
2011 – MLB National League Championship: St. Louis Cardinals beat Milwaukee Brewers, 4 games to 2
2012 – Conflict in Maiduguri, Nigeria, leads to 24 militant deaths and several structures set ablaze
2013 – 21 people are killed after a minibus hits a land mine in Nawa, Syria
2013 – The United States ends its 16-day government shut down and avoids default in a Bi-partisan deal in the Senate
2013 – 49 people are killed after Lao Airlines Flight 301 crashes in the Mekong River, Laos
2013 – 18 people are killed after Typhoon Wipha strikes Japan
2014 – New Zealand, Malaysia, Angola, Spain and Venezuela are elected to the United Nations Security Council
2014 – MLB National League Championship: San Francisco Giants beat St. Louis Cardinals, 4 games to 1

BIRTHDAYS

1396 – William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English soldier (d. 1450)
1430 – King James II of Scotland (d. 1460)
1483 – Gasparo Contarini, Italian diplomat and cardinal (d. 1542)
1535 – Niwa Nagahide, Japanese warlord (d. 1585)
1605 – Charles C Dassoucy, French writer/singer
1663 – Prince Eugene of Savoy, French-born Austrian general (d. 1736)
1679 – Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer
1708 – Albrecht von Haller, Switz, experimental physiology (Acad of Science)
1710 – Andreas Hadik, Austro-Hungarian general (d. 1790)
1714 – Giovanni Arduino, Italian geologist (d. 1795)
1723 – Johann Andreas Joseph Giulini, composer
1726 – Daniel Chodowiecki, Polish painter (d. 1801)
1729 – Pierre van Maldere, composer
1751 – Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, Queen of Prussia (d. 1805)
1754 – Morgan Lewis, Governor of New York (1804-07) (d. 1844)
1758 – Noah Webster, West Hartford, Connecticut, lexicographer (Webster’s Dictionary), (d. 1843)
1762 – Paul Hamilton, Governor of South Carolina (1804-06) and U.S. Secretary of Navy (1809-12) (d. 1816)
Lexicographer Noah Webster (1758)

1765 – Frederic Nicolas Duvernoy, composer
1789 – William Burton, Governor of Delaware (1859-63) (d. 1866)
1795 – William Buell Sprague, American clergyman and author (d. 1876)
1802 – Isaac Murphy, Governor of Arkansas (1864-68) (d. 1882)
1806 – William Pitt Fessenden, Secy Treas (Union), (d. 1869)
1811 – Gaetano Capocci, composer
1815 – Francis Lubbock, Governor of Texas (d. 1905)
1816 – William Preston, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1887)
1819 – Austin F. Pike, American politician from New Hampshire (d. 1886)
1821 – Albert Franz Doppler, composer
1825 – Thomas Turpin Crittenden, Brig Genl (Union volunteers), (d. 1905)
1826 – Piotr Studzinski, composer
1830 – Ferdinand van der Haeghen, Flemish librarian/bibliography
1832 – George Crockett Strong, Mjr General (Union volunteers), (d. 1863)
1832 – Vicente Riva Palacio, Mexico, writer/diplomat
1837 – John Francis Barnett, composer
1840 – Kuroda Kiyotaka, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1900)
1841 – Itō Hirobumi, Japanese samurai, Japanese Prime Minister and Resident-General of Korea (d. 1909)
1849 – Arnold Krug, composer
1849 – Charles Harford Lloyd, composer
1851 – James Ten Eyck, champion rower/coach (Ten Eyck Trophy namesake)
1854 – Karl J Kautsky, Austrian marxist/socialist
Writer/Poet Oscar Wilde(1854)

1854 – Oscar Wilde, [Fingal O’Flahertie Wills], (Pic of Dorian Gray), born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1900)
1855 – Camille Looten, Belgian priest/literature historian
1855 – Samedbey Mehmandarov, Russian general (d. 1931)
1861 – J. B. Bury, Irish historian (d. 1927)
1863 – Austen Chamberlain, British Foreign Secretary (Nobel 1925)
1866 – Pieter J Kromsigt, theologist/publicist (Troffel & Sword)
1868 – Franz X Ritter von Epp, German general (China)
1870 – Helge Rode, Danish poet/essayist
1878 – Carlos Pedrell, composer
1878 – Maxey Long, American athlete (d. 1959)
1883 – Vasiliki Maliaros, Greek actress (d. 1973)
1884 – Rembrandt Bugatti, Italian sculptor (d. 1916)
1885 – Dorando di Desiderio Pietri, Italian marathoner (Olympic-DQ gold-1908)
1886 – Armin T Wegner, writer
First Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion (1886)

1886 – David Ben-Gurion, Plonsk Poland, 1st Prime Minister of Israel (1948-53, 55)
1888 – Eugene O’Neill, dramatist (Desire Under the Elms-Nobel 1936), born in NYC, New York
1888 – Paul Popenoe, American activist (d. 1979)
1890 – Paul Strand, photographer (Native Land-1942), born in NYC, New York
1890 – Maria Goretti, Italian saint (d. 1902)
1890 – Michael Collins, Sam’s Cross County Cork, Irish revolutionary leader
1896 – Edmond van Dooren, Flemish painter
1897 – Harrison Kerr, composer
1897 – Louis de Cazenave, France’s oldest living man
1898 – Arthur H Dean, lawyer/advisor to FDR
1898 – William O Douglas, Maine, 81st Supreme Court justice (1939-75)
1900 – Lloyd Corrigan, SF, actor (Papa Dodger-Willy, Prof McKillup-Hank)
Irish Nationalist Leader Michael Collins (1890)

1900 – [Leon] Goose Goslin, baseball hall of famer (AL bat champ 1928)
1900 – Edward Ardizzone, artist and illustrator (d. 1979)
1900 – Primo Conti, Italian painter (d. 1988)
1903 – Mario Pilati, composer
1903 – Cecile de Brunhoff, French storyteller (d. 2003)
1904 – Reginald Dixon, Sheffield, Britain, theatre organist, (d. 1985)
1905 – Rex Bell, cowboy actor (Cowboys & Injuns)/lt-gov (Nevada), born in Chicago, Illinois
1905 – Wild Bill Elliott, Pattonsburg MO, actor (Beyond the Sacramento)
1906 – Dino Buzzati, writer
1906 – George Martin Lott Jr, tennis champ (1931 US Open runner-up)
1907 – Roger Vailland, French author (La Novice, Et Mourir de Plasir)
1908 – Enver Hoxha, post-war leader of Albania (1944-85)
1910 – William Leonard Reed, composer
1913 – Alice Pearce, comedienne/actress (Gladys Kravitz-Bewitched), born in NYC, New York
1913 – Cesar Bresgen, Austrian composer/organist
1914 – Christian J Modeste, gypsey king
1916 – George Turner, Australian author (d. 1997)
1917 – Alice Pearce, American actress (d. 1966)
1918 – Bill Nichols, (Rep-D-AL, 1967- )
1919 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
1921 – Michael Conrad, Washington Hgts NY, actor (Delvecchio, Hill St Blues)
1921 – Matt Batts, San Anttonio, TX, MLB catcher (Red Sox), (d. 2013)
1922 – Max Bygraves, actor (Tom Brown’s School Days), born in London, England
1922 – Robert Urquhart, actor (Dunkirk, Bulldog Breed, Dark Avenger)
1923 – Linda Darnell, American actress (Unfaithfully Yours, A Letter to Three Wives), born in Dallas, Texas
1923 – Bert Kaempfert, rocker
Actress Angela Lansbury(1925)

1925 – Angela Lansbury, actress (Jessica-Murder She Wrote), born in London, England
1925 – Daniel J Evans, (Sen-R-WA, 1983- )
1925 – Lorraine Sweeny, communications specialist
1927 – Gus Yatron, (Rep-D-PA, 1969- )
1927 – Lee Montague, actor (Uncle Sasha-Holocaust), born in London, England
1927 – Peter Brinson, dance educationalist
1927 – Günter Grass, German writer and playwright (The Tin Drum) and Nobel Prize laureate (1999), born in Danzig
1928 – Mary Daly, American feminist
1928 – Ann Morgan Guilbert, American actress
1929 – Bill Green, (Rep-R-NY, 1978- )
1929 – Fernanda Montenegro, Brazilian actress
1930 – Carmen Sevilla, Spanish actress
Writer and playwright Günter Grass (1927)

1931 – Charles W Colson, presidential adviser (Watergate figure), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 2012)
1931 – Rosa Rosal, Filipino actress and humanitarian
1932 – Henry Jay Lewis, conductor/bass (LA Philharmonic 1955-59), born in Los Angeles, California
1932 – John Grant, British politician (d. 2000)
1935 – Sugar Pie DeSanto, US singer (Soulful dress)
1936 – Gerardo Gandini, composer
1936 – Andrei Chikatilo, Russian serial killer (d. 1994)
1936 – Akira Machida, Japanese judge
1936 – Peter Bowles, English actor
1937 – Emile Ford, rocker
1937 – Tony Anthony, Clarksburg WV, actor (Treasure of 4 Crowns)
1938 – Nico (born Christa Päffgen singer-songwriter, fashion model, actress) (d. 1988)
1938 – Carl Gunter Jr, Louisiana State Representative (d. 1999)
1940 – Barry Corbin, actor (Maurice-Northern Exposure)
NBA Forward and MLB Player Dave DeBusschere (1940)

1940 – Dave DeBusschere, NBA foward (NY Knick)/last ABA commissioner, born in Detroit, Michigan
1941 – Derek David Bourgeois, composer
1941 – Erkki Jokinen, composer
1941 – Tim McCarver, baseball catcher (Phils, Mets)/sportscaster (ABC, CBS)
1942 – Dave Lovelady, rocker
1943 – C Fred Turner, rock bassist/vocalist (Bachman-Turner Overdrive)
1944 – Bob Cottam, cricketer (England fast-medium on 2 India/Pakistan tours)
1944 – Johnny Washbrook, actor (Ken-My Friend Flicka), born in Toronto, Ontario
1945 – Paul Monette, writer
1946 – Suzanne Somers, San Bruno California, actress (3’s Company, Step by Step)
1947 – Bob Weir, guitarist (Grateful Dead-Uncle Joe’s Band), born in San Franciso, California
1947 – David Zucker, Milwaukee WI, director (Airplane, Naked Gun, Top Secret)
1948 – Michael Tylo, actor (Guiding Light, Blade-Young & Restless), born in Detroit, Michigan
1948 – Leo Mazzone, American baseball coach
1948 – Hema Malini, Indian Actress
1951 – Alan Wheat, (Rep-D-Missouri, 1983- )
1951 – Daniel Gerroll, actor (Big Business), born in London, England
1952 – Christopher Cox, (Rep-R-California)
1952 – Boogie Mosson, American musician (P Funk)
1952 – Ron Taylor, American actor (d. 2002)
1953 – Martha Smith, Cleve Ohio, actress (Animal House)/playmate (July 1973)
1953 – Susan Pedersen, US, 4 X 100m medley swimmer (Olympic-gold-1968)
1953 – Tony Carey, rocker, born in Fresno, California
1953 – Paulo Roberto Falcão, Brazilian footballer
1954 – Stephen Mellor, American actor
1955 – Ellen Dolan, Monticello IO, actress (Guiding Light, Margo Hughes-ATWT)
1956 – James H Newman, Trust Territory of Pacific, PhD/Astronaut (STS 51, 69)
1956 – Johnny Chavis, American football coach
1958 – Tim Robbins, West Covina CA, actor (Bull Durham, Shawshank Redemption)
1958 – Eleftheria Arvanitaki, Greek singer
1959 – Gary Kemp, rock guitarist (Spandau Ballet-True), born in London, England
1959 – Erkki-Sven Tüür, Estonian composer
1960 – Val Skinner, Hamilton MT, LPGA golfer (1995 Sprint Championship)
1960 – Bob Mould, American musician
1961 – Billy Taylor, Monticello FL, pitcher (Oakland A’s)
1961 – Chris Doleman, defensive end (San Francisco 49ers)
1961 – Wilfried Brookhuis, soccer player (NEC)
1961 – Randy Vasquez, American actor
1961 – Marc Levy, French novelist
1962 – Flea, [Michael Balzary], bassist (Red Hot Chili Peppers)
1962 – Laura Coenen, Neenah Wisc, team handball goalie (Olymp-1988, 92, 96)
1962 – Manute Bol, NBA center (Golden State Warriors)
1962 – Tamara McKinney, Lexington KY, slalom skier (Olympic-4th-1984)
1962 – Dmitri Hvorostovsky, Russian baritone
1963 – Missy Hyatt, wrestling manager (WCW, ECW), born in Atlanta, Georgia
1964 – Kay Cockerill, LPGA golfer (1995 Friendly’s Classic-32nd), born in San Jose, California
1965 – German Titov, Moscow Russia, NHL center (Calgary Flames, Oly-Silver-1998)
1965 – Lisa Bonder, Columbus Ohio, tennis star
1966 – Donovan Right, CFL linebacker (Hamilton Tiger Cats)
1966 – Gerhard Puschnik, hockey forward (Team Austria 1998)
1967 – Joe Murphy, NHL right wing (Chicago Blackhawks), born in London, England
1967 – Michael York, Australian field hockey fullback (Oly-silver-92, 96)
1967 – Davina McCall, British television presenter
1968 – Randall Batinkoff, actor (For Keeps)
1968 – Robert van Oosterom, cricket opening batsman (Holland 1996 World Cup)
1968 – Scott Donie, Vicenza Italy, diver (Olympics-4th-96)
1968 – Elsa Zylberstein, French actress
1969 – Darren McKenzie-Potter, Auckland NZ, cyclist (Olympics-96)
1969 – Doug Hocking, CFL linebacker (Winnipeg Blue Bombers)
1969 – Gregory Metcalf, Ellensburg Wash, 3k steeplechase
1969 – Spencer McLennan, CFL safety (Montreal Alouettes)
1969 – Wendy Wilson, rock vocalist (Wilson Phillips-Hold On), born in Los Angeles, California
1969 – Roy Hargrove, American jazz trumpeter
1969 – Terri J. Vaughn, American actress
1969 – Takao Ōmori, Japanese professional wrestler
1970 – Adrian Murrell, NFL running back/kick returner (NY Jets)
1970 – Mehmet Scholl, German footballer
1970 – Kazuyuki Fujita, Japanese professional wrestler and mixed martial arts fighter
1971 – David Johnson, cricketer (Karnataka fast bowler, India 1996-)
1971 – Greg Jeffries, NFL cornerback (Detroit Lions)
1971 – Kathryn J Taylor, Miss USA-Kansas (1997)
1971 – Simon Shanks, NFL inside linebacker (Arizona Cardinals)
1971 – Toni Foster, WNBA forward/center (Phoenix Mercury)
1971 – Chad Gray, American singer
1972 – Darius Kasparaitis, Elektrenai Lit, NHL defenseman (Islanders, Pitts)
1972 – Darren Balmforth, Australian rower (Olympics-96)
1972 – Kordell Stewart, NFL quarterback/wide receiver (Pittsburgh Steelers)
1972 – Stephen O’Connor, Irish amateur snooker champ (1990)
1973 – Peter Polaco, American professional wrestler
1973 – David Unsworth, English professional footballer
1974 – Jermaine Lewis, wide receiver (Baltimore Ravens)
1974 – Paul Kariya, NHL left wing (Anaheim Mighty Ducks, Oly-98), born in Vancouver, Canada
1974 – Deo Grech, Maltese television presenter, songwriter
1975 – Jacques Kallis, cricketer (South African Test all-rounder v England 1995)
1975 – Jamila Wideman, WNBA guard (LA Sparks)
1975 – Kellie Martin, Riverside CA, actress (Life Goes On, Cristy)
1975 – Brynjar Gunnarsson, Icelandic footballer
1976 – Ryan Fitzgerald, Australian football (AFL) player and media personality
1977 – John Mayer, American musician
1978 – Abel Talamantez, Texas, singer (Menudo-Cannonball)
1978 – Whitni Zimmerman, Miss New Mexico Teen USA (1996)
1978 – Ethan Luck, American musician (The O.C. Supertones, Demon Hunter, Relient K)
1980 – Jeremy Jackson, Newport Beach California, actor (Shout, Baywatch)
1980 – Sue Bird, American basketball player
1980 – Timana Tahu, Australian Rugby League player
1981 – Anthony Reyes, starting pitcher for the St. Louis Cardinals
1981 – Martin Halle, Danish footballer
1981 – Caterina Scorsone, Canadian actress
1982 – Frédéric Michalak, French rugby player
1982 – Vincy Chan, Hong Kong singer
1984 – Trevor Blumas, Canadian actor
1984 – Shayne Ward, UK singer, winner of The X Factor, series 2005
1985 – Casey Stoner, Australian motorcycle racer and 2007 MotoGP World Champion
1986 – Craig Pickering, British sprinter
1988 – Zoltán Stieber, Hungarian footballer

WEDDINGS

1923 – General Francisco Franco (30) marries María del Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdés (23) at Church of San Juan el Real in Oviedo
1965 – Singer Leslie Uggams marries Grahame Pratt in NYC
1979 – MLB outfielder Tim Raines (20) weds his high school sweetheart Virginia Hilton
1986 – Marie Osmond marries Brian Blosil
1992 – Author J. K. Rowling (27) weds Portuguese television journalist Jorge Arantes
1993 – NFL coach Don Shula (28) weds second wife Mary Anne Stephens at St Joseph’s Catholic Church in Miami Beach
2004 – Actor Marlon Brando’s son Christian Brando (46) weds Deborah Presley at The Little White Wedding Chapel in Las Vegas
NFL Head Coach Don Shula(1993)

2011 – Actress, screenwriter and model Nikki Reed (24) weds singer-songwriter Paul McDonald (27) at a private ranch in Malibu, California
2013 – Actress and singer Kristen Bell (30) weds actor Dax Shepard (38) at the Beverly Hills County Clerk’s Office in California

DIVORCES

1924 – American writer (“Gone with the Wind”) Margaret Mitchell divorces 1st husband Berrien (Red) Upshaw
1984 – Joyce King divorces NBA guard George Gervin (32) after nearly 8 years of marriage

DEATHS

775 – Mansur, kalief of Abbasiden, dies
1323 – Amadeus V the Great, count of Flanders/Savoy, dies at 74
1333 – Nicolaas V, [Pietro Rainalducci], Italian anti-Pope (1328-30), dies
1355 – Louis, King of Sicily, felled by the Black Death
1473 – Reinoud II van Brederode, viscount of Utrecht, dies
1553 – Lucas Cranach Sr, German painter, dies at 81
1555 – Hugh Latimer, English bishop and royal chaplain, burned at the stake as one of the Oxford Martyrs at 80
1555 – Nicholas Ridley, English theologist/bishop of Rochester, burned at the stake as an Oxford martyr
1570 – Baron van Montigny, Dutch earl of Horne, murdered
1591 – Gregory XIV, [Niccolo Sfondrati], Italian Pope, dies at 56
1594 – William Allen, English cardinal/founder seminary of Douai, dies at 62
1621 – Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, organist/composer, dies at about 59
1628 – François de Malherbe, French poet and critic (b. 1555)
1649 – Isaac van Ostade, painter, buried
1655 – Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician, and music theorist (b. 1591)
1680 – Raimondo Montecuccoli, Italian-Austrian general (b. 1608 or 1609)
1688 – Philips Koninck, painter/etcher, buried at 68
1690 – Margaretha M Alacoque, French mystic/saint, dies at 43
1694 – Samuel Freiherr von Pufendorf, German lawyer, dies at 62
1726 – Giovanni Maria Capelli, composer, dies at 77
1750 – Silvius Leopold Weiss, composer, dies at 64
1755 – Saint Gerard Majella, Catholic saint (b. 1725)
1774 – Robert Fergusson, Scottish songwriter (Scottish Poems), dies
1781 – Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, British naval officer (b. 1705)
1791 – Grigory Potemkin, Russian military leader, statesman and favorite of Catherine the Great, dies at 52
Queen of France Marie Antoinette (1793)

1793 – Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, beheaded at 37
1793 – John Hunter, eminent doctor and philosopher (b. 1728
1796 – Victor Amadeus III of Savoy (b. 1726)
1799 – Antoine-Frederic Gresnick, composer, dies at 44
1810 – Nachman of Breslov, founder of Breslov Hasidut (b. 1772)
1814 – Juan Jose Landaeta, composer, dies at 34
1817 – Manuel C Piar, Curacaos/Venezulian freedom writer, dies
1822 – Eva Marie Veigel, Austrian ballet dancer (b. 1724)
1836 – Friedrich Theodor Frohlich, composer, dies at 33
1849 – George Washington Williams, 1st major African American historian, dies
1862 – George Burgwyn Anderson, US Confederate brig-general, dies at 31
1865 – Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker, philosopher, and sociologist (b. 1781)
1867 – Salomon J Rappoport, Czech rabbi (Ereg miliem), dies
1877 – John Zwijsen, archbishop of Utrecht, dies at 83
1877 – Theodore Barrière, French dramatist (b. 1823)
1880 – Edward Wolff, composer, dies at 64
1888 – John Wentworth, Mayor of Chicago (b. 1815)
1891 – Sarah Winnemucca, indian scout, dies
1893 – Carlo Pedrotti, composer, dies at 75
1893 – Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, President of France (b. 1808)
1909 – Jakub Bart-Ćišinski, Sorbian writer (b. 1856)
1916 – Klaas/old stick Kater, christian worker’s union leader, dies at 73
1918 – Felix Arndt, composer, dies at 29
1919 – Charles Harford Lloyd, composer, dies on 70th birthday
1920 – Alberto Nepomuceno, Brazilian composer/conductor (Artemis), dies at 56
1928 – Septimus Kinneir, cricketer (Test for Eng), dies
1937 – Jean de Brunhoff, French writer (b. 1899)
1939 – Carl Henrik Ludolf Nielsen, composer, dies at 63
1942 – 12, Dutch Communist Party-resistance fighter/3 NVV-hostages, executed
1944 – Eric Westberg, composer, dies at 52
1944 – John Eigenhuis, writer (The Dike), dies at 78
1946 – Alfred G Jodl, Col-Gen/German staff chief weather authority, hanged
1946 – Alfred Rosenberg, German war criminal, hanged
1946 – Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian chancellor (1930s), hanged at 54
1946 – Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Austrian Nazi (SS), hanged
1946 – Fritz Sauckel, German war criminal, hanged
1946 – Granville Ransome Bantock, English composer/conductor, dies at 78
1946 – Hans Frank, former Nazi Governor General of Occupied Poland, hanged

Foreign Minister of the German Reich Joachim von Ribbentrop (1946)

1946 – Joachim von Ribbentrop, German war criminal, hanged
1946 – Wilhelm Frick, German war criminal, hanged
1946 – Wilhelm Keitel, German fieldmarshal, hanged
1948 – Henry Foley, cricketer (one Test for NZ, scored 2 & 2), dies
1949 – Hale Ascher VanderCook, composer, dies at 85
1951 – Liaquat Ali Khan, PM of Pakistan (1947-51), assassinated by Said Akbar
1956 – Jules Rimet, president of FIFA (b. 1873)
1959 – George Marshall, US army general, dies at 78
1962 – Gaston Bachelard, French philosopher (Water & Dreams), dies at 78
1966 – George O’Hara, American actor (b. 1899)
1968 – Ellis Kinder, baseball player (b. 1914)
1972 – Leo G Carroll, actor (Topper, Man From Uncle), dies at 80
1972 – Hale Boggs, U.S. Congressman from Louisiana (b. 1914)
1973 – Gene Krupa, US swing drummer (Sing Sing Sing), dies at 64
1974 – Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar, noted Carnatic musician (b. 1895)
Military Leader George Marshall (1959)

1977 – Michael Balcon, producer, dies at 81
1978 – Dan Dailey, American dancer and actor (Governor & JJ), dies of anemia at 62
1979 – Johan Borgen, Norwegian author (b. 1903)
1980 – Carl PM Romme, Dutch minister of Social Affairs (KVP), dies at 83
1981 – Moshe Dayan, Israel’s general/minister of Defense, dies at 66
1981 – Stanley Clements, actor (Boys’ Prison, Army Bound, Hot News), dies
1981 – William Holden, actor (Casino Royale), dies at 63
1982 – Jacov Gotovac, composer, dies at 86
1982 – Mario del Monaco, Italian opera singer (Verdi/Puccini), dies at 67
1983 – George Liberace, violinist (Liberace Show), dies at 72
1983 – Kelso, American racehorse (b. 1957)
1984 – Ken Carpenter, TV announcer (Lux Video Theater), dies at 84
1984 – Peggy Ann Garner, actress (Ford Theater), dies at 53 of cancer
1985 – Claude Stroud, actor (Hobart-Ted Knight Show, Duke), dies at 78
1986 – Arthur Grumiaux, Belgian violinist, dies at 65
1986 – C Wttewaall van Stoetwegen, CHU Member of Dutch parliament, dies at 85
1987 – Dana Suesse, songwriter (You Ought to be in Pictures), dies at 75
1989 – Cornel Wilde, actor (Saadia, Comic, Beach Red, Gargoyles), dies at 74
1990 – Art Blakey, jazz drummer (Jazz Messengers), dies of cancer at 71
1990 – Jorge Bolet, Cuban-American classical pianist (b. 1914)
1991 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, country singer (16 Tons), dies at 72
1991 – Tonny Huurdeman, singer/actress (Frills), dies
1992 – Shirley Booth, actress (Hazel), dies of natural causes at 94
1993 – John Bowles, president (Rexall Drugs), dies at 76
1994 – William Henry Swinburne, music teacher, dies at 87
1995 – John Walker, museum director, dies at 88
1995 – Murdo Alexander MacLeod, minister, dies at 60
1995 – Thomas Augustine Martin, academic, dies at 59
1996 – Anthony Griffin, sailor, dies at 75
1996 – Eric Lawson Malpass, writer, dies at 85
1996 – Ismond Rosen, psychoanalyst/artist, dies at 82
1996 – James Wild, music teacher, dies at 68
1996 – Jason Bernard, actor (judge-Liar Liar), dies of heart attack at 58
1997 – Audra Lindley, actress (Helen Roper-3’s Company, Ropers), dies at 79
1997 – James Mitchner, author (Hawaii), dies of kidney failure at 90
1997 – James Michener, American writer (b. 1907)
1998 – Jon Postel, American Internet pioneer (b. 1943)
1999 – Jean Shepherd, American writer and actor (b. 1921)
2000 – Mel Carnahan, American politician (b. 1934)
2002 – Angela Dawson, American murder victim
2003 – Avni Arbas, Turkish artist (b. 1919)
2003 – Stu Hart, Canadian professional wrestler (b. 1915)
2003 – László Papp, Hungarian boxer (b. 1926)
2004 – Pierre Salinger, John F. Kennedy’s White House Press Secretary (b. 1925)
2005 – “Len” Dresslar, American singer and voice actor (b. 1925)
2005 – Eugene “Porky” Lee, American child actor (b. 1933)
2005 – David Reilly, American singer (God Lives Underwater) (b. 1971)
2006 – Valentín Paniagua Corazao, Ex President of Peru (b. 1936)
2006 – Ross Davidson, British actor (b. 1949)
2006 – Tommy Johnson, American tubist (b. 1935)
2006 – Lister Sinclair, Canadian broadcaster and playwright (b. 1921)
2007 – Deborah Kerr, Scottish actress (From Here to Eternity, The King and I) dies at 86
2007 – Toše Proeski, Macedonian music star (b. 1981)
2007 – Barbara West, Second to last living Titanic survivor.
2010 – Barbara Billingsley, American actress (b. 1915)
2010 – Eyedea, American rapper (Eyedea & Abilities) (b. 1981)
2011 – Dan Wheldon, English auto racer (b. 1978)
2012 – Eddie Yost, American MLB player, dies from cardiovascular disease at 86
2013 – Ed Lauter, American actor, dies from mesothelioma at 74
2014 – Tim Hauser, American jazz singer, dies from cardiac arrest at 72


Representations of the Republic at War: Lille and Toulon, 1792-1793

Although historians have tended to focus upon the battles of Valmy (20 September 1792) and Wattignies, (15-16 October 1793) as the decisive moments in the defence of republican France, contemporary politicians, journalists, poets, playwrights, and artists instead celebrated the sieges of Lille (29 September - 8 October 1792) and Toulon (27 August - 19 December 1793). Their representations of these two sieges provide a valuable insight into the way the war was perceived in the revolutionary imagination and into the links between war and terror in revolutionary discourse. Both sieges, despite their differences, gave revolutionary publicists the opportunity to celebrate the myth of the nation-in-arms. While the realities of incompetent leadership and ill-disciplined, poorly equipped troops could not be denied, the myth of republican invincibility could be sustained by dramatizing the exploits of the volunteers and civilians who, regardless of age and gender, rallied to the defence of the Republic. Such heroism was contrasted with the brutality and cowardice of an enemy who depended upon French treason for his success. By insisting that the enemy had put himself beyond the pale of humanity, revolutionary propaganda justified a ruthless conduct of the war and a merciless repression of the foreign enemy's internal collaborators.

Recent scholarship has undermined the interpretation of the Terror as a practical necessity of patriotic defence it has been shown that even the revolutionaries’ own justifications of terrorist measures placed little emphasis upon the demands of the war. Nevertheless, in their interpretations of the sieges of Lille and Toulon, revolutionary publicists sanctioned the use of terror as an essential instrument in compelling citizens to choose the path of heroism over that of treason, thereby depriving the enemy of his only hope of victory. The sieges of Lille and Toulon figured so prominently in the revolutionary imagination because they illustrated so well the idea that no citizen was exempt from making that choice.

Les historiens ont toujours eu tendance à considérer les batailles de Valmy (le 20 septembre 1792) et Wattignies (du 15 au 16 octobre 1793) comme les moments décisifs de la défense de la France républicaine. Aux yeux des publicistes de l’époque, cependant, ce sont les sièges de Lille (du 29 septembre au 8 octobre 1792) et de Toulon (du 27 août au 19 décembre 1793) qui jouent le rôle le plus important dans ce domaine. Les représentations qu’ont faites ces derniers des deux sièges nous renseignent sur la place qu’occupe la guerre dans l’imaginaire révolutionnaire, aussi bien que sur les relations qui existent entre la guerre et la terreur dans le discours révolutionnaire. Les deux sièges, malgré certaines différences, ont donné aux publicistes révolutionnaires l’occasion de célébrer le mythe du peuple en armes. Il faut, bein sûr, reconnaître les réalités-généraux suspects et soldats indisciplinés et dépourvus des nécessités de la guerre—mais on peut quand même soutenir le mythe de l’invincibilité républicaine en dramatisant les exploits des volontaires et des citoyens de tout âge qui se sont ralliés à la république. On oppose à cet héroïsme républicain la brutalité et la lâcheté de l’ennemi. En insistant que seule la trahison permettrait à cet ennemi inhumain de remporter des succès, les révolutionnaires justifient une conduite militaire implacable et une répression sans pitié des collaborateurs internes de l’ennemi étranger.

Des études récentes ont miné l’interprétation selon laquelle la terreur serait un instrument de défense patriotique: on a démontré que les révolutionnaires eux-mêmes n’auraient cité que très rarement la guerre comme justification des mesures terroristes. Mais en fait, dans leurs interprétations des sièges de Lille et de Toulon, les propagandistes révolutionnaires justifient la terreur comme moyen d’extirper la trahison, seul espoir de l’ennemi. Les sièges de Lille et de Toulon occupent une place importante dans l’imaginaire révolutionnaire parce qu’elles démontrent si bien que tout citoyen devait choisir entre l’héroïsme et la trahison.


The Start of the French Revolutionary Wars

By 1791 the French Revolution had transformed France and worked to tear down the powers of the old, nationally absolutist, regime. King Louis XVI was reduced to a form of house arrest. Part of his court hoped that a foreign, royalist army would march into France and restore the king, who had asked for help from abroad. But for many months the other states of Europe refused to help. Austria, Prussia, Russia and the Ottoman Empires had been involved in a series of power struggles in Eastern Europe and had been less worried about the French king than their own jostling for positions until Poland, stuck in the middle, followed France by declaring a new constitution. Austria now tried to form an alliance that would threaten France into submission and stops the eastern rivals from fighting. France and the revolution had thus been sheltered while it progressed but became a useful distraction with land which could be taken.

On August 2nd, 1791 the King of Prussia and the Holy Roman Emperor seemed to declare an interest in war when they issued the Declaration of Pillnitz. However, Pillnitz was designed to frighten the French revolutionaries and support the French who supported the king, not start a war. Indeed, the text of the declaration was worded to make war, in theory, impossible. But the emigres, agitating for war, and the revolutionaries, who were both paranoid, took it the wrong way. An official Austro-Prussian alliance was only concluded in February 1792. The other Great Powers were now looking at French hungrily, but this did not automatically mean war. However the emigres — people who had fled France — were promising to return with foreign armies to restore the king, and while Austria turned them down, German princes humored them, upsetting the French and provoking a call for action.

There were forces in France (the Girondins or Brissotins) who wanted to take pre-emptive action, hoping that war would enable them to oust the king and declare a republic: the king’s failure to surrender to constitutional monarchy left the door open for him to be replaced. Some monarchists supported the call for war in the hope foreign armies would march in and restore their king. (One opponent of the war was called Robespierre.) On April 20th France’s National Assembly declared war on Austria after the Emperor helpfully tried another careful threat. The result was Europe reacting and the formation of the First Coalition, which was first between Austria and Prussia but was then joined by Britain and Spain. It would take seven coalitions to permanently end the wars now started. The First Coalition was aimed less at ending the revolution and more on gaining territory, and the French less as exporting revolution than getting a republic.


Battle of Wattignies, 15-16 October 1793 - History

In 1788, Louis was forced to reinstate France's National Assembly (the Estates-General) which quickly curtailed the king's powers. In July of the following year, the mobs of Paris stormed the hated prison at the Bastille. Feeling that power was shifting to their side, the mob forced the imprisonment of Louis and his family. Louis attempted escape in 1791 but was captured and returned to Paris. In 1792, the newly elected National Convention declared France a republic and brought Louis to trial for crimes against the people.

On January 20, 1793, the National Convention condemned Louis XVI to death, his execution scheduled for the next day. Louis spent that evening saying goodbye to his wife and children. The following day dawned cold and wet. Louis arose at five. At eight o'clock a guard of 1,200 horsemen arrived to escort the former king on a two-hour carriage ride to his place of execution. Accompanying Louis, at his invitation, was a priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth, an Englishman living in France. Edgeworth recorded the event and we join his narrative as he and the fated King enter the carriage to begin their journey:

The procession lasted almost two hours the streets were lined with citizens, all armed, some with pikes and some with guns, and the carriage was surrounded by a body of troops, formed of the most desperate people of Paris. As another precaution, they had placed before the horses a number of drums, intended to drown any noise or murmur in favour of the King but how could they be heard? Nobody appeared either at the doors or windows, and in the street nothing was to be seen, but armed citizens - citizens, all rushing towards the commission of a crime, which perhaps they detested in their hearts.

The path leading to the scaffold was extremely rough and difficult to pass the King was obliged to lean on my arm, and from the slowness with which he proceeded, I feared for a moment that his courage might fail but what was my astonishment, when arrived at the last step, I felt that he suddenly let go my arm, and I saw him cross with a firm foot the breadth of the whole scaffold silence, by his look alone, fifteen or twenty drums that were placed opposite to me and in a voice so loud, that it must have been heard it the Pont Tournant, I heard him pronounce distinctly these memorable words: ' I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge I Pardon those who have occasioned my death and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France .'


Contents

At the opening of the year, Dumouriez chose to ignore orders from the government in Paris to defend Belgium and instead began an invasion of the Netherlands, hoping to overthrow the stadtholder and establish a popular republic backed by France. In the event, he took Breda in Brabant and prepared to cross into Holland and capture Dordrecht. However, the armies remaining in Belgium suffered a number of defeats, such as by the Austrians at Aachen and Liège and their raising (lifting) Miranda's siege of Maastricht. Dumouriez was forced by his superiors to return to Belgium and take command in the Flanders Campaign.

After a defeat at Neerwinden, Dumouriez had to retreat from Belgium. He then made an agreement with the Austrians to hand over to them several border fortresses in return for a truce where he could march on Paris and restore the monarchy under the Constitution of 1791. However, he was unable to secure the loyalty of his troops, and he defected to the Austrian lines rather than face arrest by the Jacobins.

At the same time, the increasing power of radicals in Paris incited revolt in the provinces, with the people of Lyon and Marseille rebelling and the Vendée raising an army to attack the central government and open communications with Britain. Spanish armies crossed the Pyrenees, Sardinian (largely Piedmont-Savoy) armies various Alpine borders, and Austrian armies occupied Valenciennes and forced the northern armies back toward Paris. Britain ordered a naval blockade of France on 31 May.

The revolutionary government prepared a full mobilization of the nation (see Levée en masse), showing no mercy to internal or external enemies. According to Mignet's History of the French Revolution: "The republic had very soon fourteen armies, and 1,200,000 soldiers. France, while it became a camp and a workshop for the republicans, became at the same time a prison for those who did not accept the republic." They proceeded to suppress Caen, Lyon, and Marseille, although the counter-revolutionary forces turned Toulon over to Britain and Spain on 29 August, resulting in the capture of much of the French navy, and Toulon was not retaken by Dugommier (with the assistance of the young Napoleon Bonaparte) until 19 December.

In September, Nicolas Houchard defeated the Duke of York at Hondschoote, forcing him to abandon the siege of Dunkirk. In October Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, taking over the northern armies, won the Battle of Wattignies and returned to the offensive, but did not make major gains before the winter.

In the Pyrenees, the French armies ended the year on a defensive posture near the border, while on the Alpine frontier, a French invasion of Piedmont failed.


Battle of Wattignies, 15-16 October 1793 - History

Comments
The War of the 1st Coalition starts with the French Declaration of War to Austria and Prussia on 20th of april 1792 and ends with the Peace of Campo formio on 17th of october 1797.

The armistice of Cherasco on 27th of april 1796 brings the end of Piedmont’s participation in the war (1st Italian Campaign).

The 1st Coalition War has the following campaigns

  • Campaign in Italy of 1796 & 1797 (Napoleon’s 1st Italian Campaign): 26th of march 1796 until 17th of october 1797 (Peace of Campo formio).
  • Campaign in Holland.

1792/09/20 Battle of Valmy French victory

France Prussia/Austria
Dumouriez/Kellermann Brunswick
Troops: 59000 (11), 50000 (12) 35000 (11&12)
Losses: Total 300 (11), <200 (12) Total 184 (11), 300 (12)

Comments
Retreat of the Prussian troops. The Revolution Army occupies the left bank of the river Rhine.

1792/11/06 Battle of Jemappes French victory

France Austria
Dumouriez Albrecht
Troops: 40000 (11&12) 13000 (11), 14000 (12)
Losses: Total 4000 (11) Total 1241 (11)

Comments
Occupation of the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium).

1793/02/23 Combat of La Maddalena Sardinian victory

France Sardinia
Napoleon/Quenzas

1793/03/02 Battle of Hongen ? victory

France Austria
Losses: Total 2000 (11) Total 40 (11)

1793/03/18 Battle of Neerwinden Austrian victory

France Austria
Dumouriez von Saxen-Coburg
Troops: 41000 (11), 45000 (12) 39000 (11&12)
Losses: Total: >4000 (11), 4000 (12) Total: <3000 (11)

1793/03/03 – 1793/03/05 Battle of Swalmen Prussian/Austrian victory

France Prussia/Austria
Lamarlière/Champmorin Brunswick/vonWentheim

1793/05/21 – 1793/05/23 Battle of Valenciennes Allied(Austrian) victory

France Allies(Austria)
Custine VonSaxen-Coburg

1793/05/24 – 1793/08/01 Siege of Valenciennes Austrian/British/Hanoverian victory

France Allies(Austria/Britain/Hanover)
Custine Von Saxen-Coburg
Troups: 9500 (12) 30000 (12)
Losses: Total 4500 (12) Total 1750 (12)

Comments
The French were the besieged
Some sources claim the end of the siege to be on the 1793/07/28.

1793/06/07 – 1793/06/09 Battle of Arlon French victory

France Austria
Troops: 12000 (11) 7000 (11)
Losses: Total 1000 (11) Total 550 (11)

1793/08/27 – 1793/12/19 Siege of Toulon Republican France victory

Republican France Royalists/Britain/Spain/Naples/Piedmont
Carteaux/Doppet/Dugommier Hood/O’Hara

Comments
Toulon and the French Mediterranean fleet surrenders to the British fleet under Admiral Hood on 1793/08/24.
On 1793/12/19 Toulon falls to the Revolutionary French. In the confusion the french fleet suffers very heavy losses.
On 1793/12/14 Napoleons well known assaults on two of the harbour protecting forts succeeded.
Some sources claim the start of the siege to be on the 1793/09/07.
Some 10� Royalists were evacuated from Toulon when the Allies abandoned the City.

1793/08/29 Battle of Bolcaire ? victory

France Spain
Losses: Total 150 (11) Total 360 (11)

1793/09/06 – 1793/09/08 Battle of Hondschoote French victory

France Britain/Hanover/Hessia
Houchard Duke of York
Troops: 24000 (11) 16000 (11)
Losses: Total <2500 (11) Total 2500 (11)

Comments
This has to be seen in connection with the siege of Dunkirk of the period. With this battle Houchard relieved the besieged French. At Hondschoote there were especially the Hanoverian troops of York’s army (35� strong) present. Houchard had a total of 50� (Army of the North) to his disposal during these days on campaign.

1793/09/13 Battle of Menin French victory

France Holland
Houchard Prince of Orange
Troups: 40000 (12) 20000 (12)

Comments
Shortly afterwards Houchards troops failed to defeat the Austrians further east of Menin and he was removed from command and executed.

1793/09/14 Battle of Pirmasens Prussian victory

France Prussia
Duke of Brunsick
Troops: 12000 (11&12) 12000 (11)
Losses: Total 3000 (11), 4000 (12) Total 168 (11)

1793/10/15 – 1793/10/17 Battle of Wattignies French victory

France Austria
Jourdan von Saxen-Coburg
Troups: 45000 (11&12) 22000 (11)
Losses: Total “heavy” (12) Total 2500 (11)

Comments
This french victory relieved also the by the Austrians besieged Maubeuge.

1793/10/29 Battle of Marchiennes ? victory

France Austria
Losses: Total 2000 (11) Total 100 (11)

1793/11/28 – 1793/11/30 Battle of Kaiserslautern undecided

France Prussia
Hoche Brunswick
Troops: 35000 (11), 30000 (12) 23000 (11)
Losses: Total 3000 (11&12) Total 800 (11), 1300 (12)

Comments
Some sources claim this to be a Prussian victory.

1793/12/07 Battle of Montesquiou ? victory

France Spain
Losses: Total 1238 (11) Total 48 (11)

1793/12/22 Battle of Fröschwiller French victory

France Prussia
Hoche Brunswick

1793/12/26 Battle of Geisberg French victory

France Austria
Hoche Würmser

1794/04/24 Engagement of Villers-en-Cauchies Allied victory

France Allies(Austria/Britain)
Chappuis Ott
Losses: Total 1200 (12)

1794/04/26 Battle of Beaumont-en Cabresis Allied victory

France Allies(Austria/Britain)
Pichegru
Troops: 22000 (11) 10000 (11)
Losses: Total 7000 (11), 3200 (12) Total 1500 (11), 500 (12)

1794/04/30 Battle of Maureillas ? victory

France Spain
Losses: KIA 10 (11) Total 3000 (11)

1794/05/17 – 1794/05/18 Battle of Tourcoing French victory

France Allies(Austria/Britain/Hanover)
Souham von Saxen-Coburg/Duke of York
Troups: 62000 (11), 60000 (12) 62000 (11), 73000 (12)

1794/05/22 Battle of Tournai Allied victory

France Allies
Pichegru
Troops: 62000 (12)
Losses: Total 6000 (12) Total 4000 (12)

1794/06/16 Engagement at Charleroi (or vicinity?) Allied(Austrian) victory

France Austria(Allies)
Jourdan
Troups: 75000 (12)

1794/06/19 – 1794/06/25 Siege of Charleroi French victory

France Austria
Hatry Reinach

Comments
The Austrians were the besieged

1794/06/26 Battle of Fleurus French victory

France Allies(Austria/Holland)
Jourdan Von Saxen-Coburg
Troups: 70000 (11) 52000 (11)
Losses: Total 2286 (aprox.) (11), 7000 (12) Total 2286 (exact) (11), 10000 (12)

Comments
The losses indicated in (12, page 67) have probably to be seen in connection with the whole action around Charleroi during this day (not only at Fleurus).

1794/07/12 – 1794/07/18 Battle of Bilbao French victory

France Spain
Moncey/Dessein Crespo

Comments
May be the same action as the battle of Irurzon

1794/11/17 – 1794/11/20 Battle of Montagne Noir French victory

France Spain
Dugommier/ Perignon La Union

Comments
Dugommier was killed on the 17th
La Union was killed on the 20th.

1795/09/21 1st Battle of Dego French victory

France Austria
Napoleon

1795/10/29 Battle of Mainz Austrian Victory

France Austria
Schaal Clerfayt

1795/11/23 – 1795/11/24 Battle of Loano French victory

France Austria/Sardinia
Scherer Devins
Losses: Total 1700 (11) Total 5500 (11)

1796/04/10 Action of Voltri Austrian victory

France Austria
Cervoni Beaulieu

1796/04/12 Battle of Montenotte French victory

France Austria
Napoleon Argenteau
Troops: 40000 (11), 9000 (12) 55000 (11), 6000 (12)
Losses: Total 2500 (12)

1796/04/14 Battle of Millesimo French victory

France Austria/Piedmont/Sardinia
Menard (Augereau (Napoleon)) Beaulieu

1796/04/14 – 1796/04/15 2nd Battle of Dego French victory

France Austria/Sardinia/Piedmont
Massena/Laharpe(Napoleon) Wukassovitch/Beaulieu

1796/04/16 – 1796/04/17 Battle of Ceva French victory

France Austria/Piedmont
Augerau(Napoleon) Colli
Troops: 2nd day 24000 (12) 6500 (3), 13000 (12)
Losses: Total 600 (3)

Comments
The first day saw a victory of the Austrians/Piedmontese
La Union was killed on the 20th.

1796/04/21 Battle of Mondovi French victory

France Piedmont/Sardinia
Serurier (Napoleon) Colli
Troups: 25000 (12) 13000 (12)

1796/05/08 Combat of Fombio French victory

France Austria
Laharpe/Dallemagne Liptay

1796/05/10 Battle of Lodi French victory

France Austria
Napoleon Sebottendorf (Beaulieu)
Troups: 30000 (11) 10000 (11), 8500 (12)
Losses: Total 1000 (12) Prisoners 2000 (12)

Comments
According to “Warfare and Armed Conflicts” by Michael Clodfelter it was in this action where Napoleon earned his nickname “Le Petit Caporal.”
And according to several sources, Napoleon later said that it was Lodi that made him certain he could be a man of high destiny.

1796/05/30 Battle of Borghetto French victory

France Austria
Napoleon Beaulieu
Troups: 19000 (12)
Losses: “Little” (12)

1796/06/04 – 1797/02/02 Siege of Mantua French victory

France Austria
Masséna/Kilmaine/d’Allemagne/Dumas d’Iries/Würmser
Troups: Beginning 13000 (12)
End 16000 (12)

Comments
From 1796/09/13 on Würmser were in comand of the besieged Austrians
Full name of Austrian Commander: Campo d’Iries
The Austrians were the besieged
The Austrians under Würmser managed to bring approximately an additional 14000 troops into the city during the siege.

1796/06/15 – 1796/06/16 Battle of Wetzlar (Wetzlau) Austrian victory

France Austria
Jourdan Archduke Charles

1796/07/09 Battle of Malsch undecided

France Austria
Moreau Archduke Charles

Comments
Some sources claim this battle as a french victory (probably because as a result of the battle Archduke Charles was afterwards pressured back over the Danube).

1796/08/05 – 1796/08/06 Battle of Lonato French victory

France Austria
Napoleon Würmser

Comments
Some sources show the following commanders: F: Herbin/Despinois(Napoleon) A: Knorr.

1796/08/05 Battle of Castiglione French victory

France Austria
Napoleon Würmser
Troops: 27500 – 30000 (1), 28000 (11) 25000 (1&11)
Losses: Total 1500 (1), 1500 (12) Total 3000 (1)
KIA&WIA 2000 (12)
Prisoners 1000 (12)

1796/08/11 Battle of Neresheim French victory

France Austria
Moreau Latour(Archduke Charles)
Troups: 50000 (11), 65000 (12) 48000 (11), 56000 (12)
Losses: Total 3000 (12) Total 3000 (12)

Comments
Some sources claim this to be an undecided battle.

1796/08/24 Battle of Amberg Austrian victory

France Austria
Jourdan Archduke Charles/Wartensleben
Troups: 45000 (11&12) 48000 (11), 61000 (12)
Losses: Total 2000 (12) Total 2000 (12)

1796/08/24 Battle of Friedberg French victory

France Austria
Moreau Lataour

1796/09/03 Battle of Würzburg Austrian victory

France Austria
Jourdan Archduke Charles
Troups: 30000 (11) 44000 (11), 60000 (12)
Losses: Total 5800 (11) Total 1469 (11)

Comments
Another action between Jourdan and Archduke Charles at Würzbur took place on the 1796/09/16: Also Austrian victory.

1796/09/04 Battle of Roveredo French victory

France Austria
Masséna Davidovich
Troops: 10000 (12) 14000 (12)
Losses: Prisoners 6000 (12)

1796/09/05 Battle of Caliano French victory

France Austria
Vaubois Davidovich

1796/09/08 Battle of Bassano French victory

France Austria
Napoleon Würmser
Troops: 22000 (12)
Losses: Prisoners 4000 (12)

1796/10/02 Battle of Biberach French victory

France Austria
Moreau Archduke Charles
Losses: Total 5000 (12)

1796/11/12 Battle of Caldiero Austrian victory

France Austria
Napoleon Alvintzy
Troups: 30000 (11) 37000 (11), 28000 (12)

Comments
First defeat of Napoleon where he personally has the lead.


Watch the video: The Battle of Valmy, France--Belgium border, 20 September 1792