Charter Of Georgia [June 1732] - History

Charter Of Georgia [June 1732] - History

GEORGE: the second, [&c] . .
Whereas we are credibly informed, that many of our poor subjects are, through misfortunes and want of employment, reduced to great necessity, insomuch as by their labor they are not able to provide a maintenance for themselves and families; and if they had means to defray their charges of passage, and other expences, incident to new settlements, they would be glad to settle in any of our provinces in America where by cultivating the lands, at present waste and desolate, they might not only gain a comfortable subsistence for themselves and families, but also strengthen our colonies and increase the trade, navigation and wealth of these our realms. And whereas our provinces in North America, have been frequently ravaged by Indian enemies; more especially that of South-Carolina, which in the late war, by the neighboring savages, was laid waste by fire and sword, and great numbers of English inhabitants, miserably massacred, and our loving subjects who now inhabit them, by reason of the smallness of their numbers, will in case of a new war, be exposed to the late [like?] calamities; inasmuch as their whole southern frontier continueth unsettled, and lieth open to the said savages—. Know ye therefore, that we . by these presents . do . ordain . that our right trusty and well beloved John, lordviscount Purcival, of our kingdom of Ireland, our trusty and well beloved Edward Digby, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Tower, Robert Moore, Robert Hucks, Roger Holland, William Sloper, Francis Eyles, John Laroche, James Vernon, Williarn Beletha, esquires, A. M. John Burton, B. D. Richard Bundy, A. Arthur Bedford, A. Samuel Smith, A. Adam Anderson and Thomas Corane, gentleman; and such other persons as shall be elected in the manner herein after mentioned, and their successors to be elected in the manner herein after directed; be, and shall be one body politic and corporate, in deed and in name, by the name of the Trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia in America; . and that they and their successors by that name shall and may forever hereafter, be persons able and capable In the law, to purchase, have, take, receive and enjoy, to them and their successors, any manors, messuages, lands, tenements, rents, advowsons, liberties, privileges, jurisdictions, franchises, and other hereditaments whatsoever, lying and being in Great Britain, or any part thereof, of whatsoever nature, kind or quality, or value they be, in fee and in perpetuity, not exceeding the yearly value of one thousand pounds, beyond reprises; also estates for lives, and for years, and all other manner of goods, chattels and things whatsoever they be; for the better settling and supporting, and maintaining the said colony, and other uses aforesaid; and to give, grant, let and demise the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chattels and things whatsoever aforesaid, by lease or leases, for term of years, in possession at the time of granting thereof, and not in reversion, not exceeding the term of thirty-one years, from the time of granting thereof; . and that they . by the name aforesaid, shall and may forever hereafter, be persons able, capable in the law, to purchase, have, take, receive, and enjoy, to them and their successors, any lands, territories, possessions, tenements, jurisdictions, franchises and hereditaments whatsoever, lying and being in America, of what quantity, quality or value whatsoever they be, for the better settling and supporting and maintaining the said colony; . And our will and pleasure is, that the first president of the said corporation . shall be . the said Lord John Viscount Percival; and that the said president shall, within thirty days after the passing this charter, cause a summons to be issued to the several members of the said corporation herein particularly named, to meet at such time and place as he shall appoint, to consult about and transact the business of said corporation. And . we . direct, that the common council of this corporation shall consist of fifteen in number; and we do . appoint . John Lord Viscount Percival, . Edward Digby, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Laroche, James Vernon, William Beletha, esqrs., and Stephen Hales, Master of Arts, to be the common council of the said corporation, to continue in the said office during their good behavior. And whereas it is our royal intention, that the members of the said corporation should be increased by election, as soon as conveniently may be, to a greater number than is hereby nominated; . we do hereby . direct, that from the time of such increase of the members of the said corporation, the number of the common council shall be increased to twenty four; and that the same assembly at which such additional members of the said corporation shall be chosen, there shall likewise be elected in the manner hereinbefore directed for the election of common council men, nine persons to be the said common council men, and to make up the number twenty-four. And our further will and pleasure is, that . Edward Digby, esquire, shall be the first chairman of the common council of the said corporation; and that the said lord viscount Purcival shall be, and continue, president of the said corporation, and that the said Edward Digby shall be and continue chairman of the common council of the said corporation, respectively, until the meeting which shall be had next and immediately after the first meeting of the said corporation, or of the common council of the said corporation respectively, and no longer; . And we do hereby . direct, that the said corporation every year lay an account in writing before the chancellor, or speaker, or commissioners, for the custody of the great seal of Great Britain . .; the Chief Justice of the Court of Kings' Bench, the Master of Rolls the Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and the chief Baron of the Exchequer . ., or any two of them; of all moneys and effects by them received or expended, for carrying on the good purposes aforesaid. give and grant unto the said corporation, and their successors, full power and authority to constitute, ordain and make, such and so many bylaws, constitutions, orders and ordinances, as to them . at their general meeting for that purpose, shall seem necessary and convenient for the well ordaining and-governing of the said corporation; . and in and by such bylaws, rules, orders and ordinances, to sell, impose and inflict, reasonable pains and penalties upon any offender or offenders, who shall trangress, break or violate the said bylaws, constitutions, orders and ordinances; . so always, as the said by-laws, constitutions, orders, and ordinances, pains and penalties . ., be reasonable and not contrary or repugnant to the laws or statutes of this our realm; and that such by-laws, constitutions and ordinances, pains and penalties . ., and any repeal or alteration thereof, or any of them, may be likewise agreed to be established and confirmed by the said general meeting of the said corporation, to be held and kept next after the same shall be respectively made. And whereas the said corporation intend to settle a colony, and to make an habitation and plantation in that part of our province of South-Carolina, in America, herein after described—Know ye, that we . do give and grant to the said corporation and their successors under the reservation, limitation and declaration, hereafter expressed, seven undivided parts, the whole in eight equal parts to be divided, of all those lands, countrys and territories, situate, lying and being in that part of South-Carolina, in America, which lies from the most northern part of a stream or river there, commonly called the Savannah, all along the sea coast to the southward, unto the most southern stream of a certain other great water or river called the Alatamaha, and westterly from the heads of the said rivers respectively, in direct lines to the south seas; and all that share, circuit and precinct of land, within the said boundaries, with the islands on the sea, lying opposite to the eastern coast of the said lands, within twenty leagues of the same, which are not inhabited already, or settled by any authority derived from the crown of Great Britain: . to be holden of us, our heirs-and successors as of our honour of Hampton-court, in our county of Middlesex in free and common soccage, and not in capite, yielding, and paying therefor to us . yearly forever, the sum of four shillings for every hundred acres of the said lands, which the said corporation shall grant, demise, plant or settle; the said payment not to commence or to be made, until ten years after such grant, demise, planting or settling; and to be answered and paid . in such manner and in such species of money or notes, as shall be current in payment, by proclamation from time to time, in our said province of South-Carolina. All which lands, countries, territories and premises . we do by these presents, make, erect and create one independent and separate province, by the name of Georgia.... And that all and every person or persons, who shall at any time hereafter inhabit or reside within our said province, shall be, and are hereby declared to be free, and shall not be subject to or be bound to obey any laws, orders, statutes or constitutions, which have been heretofore made, ordered or enacted by, for, or as, the laws, orders, statutes or constitutions of our said province of South-Carolina, (save and except only the [commander] in chief of the militia, of our said province of Georgia, to our governor for the time being of SouthCarolina, in manner hereafter declared;) but shall be subject to, and bound to obey, such laws, orders, statutes and constitutions as shall from time to time be made, ordered and enacted, for the better government of the said province of Georgia, in the manner hereinafter declared. that for and during the term of twenty-one years, to commence from the date of these our letters patents the said corporation assembled for that purpose, shall and may form and prepare, laws, statutes and ordinances, fit and necessary for and concerning the government of the said colony, and not repugnant to the laws and statutes of England; and the same shall and may present under their common seal to us . ., in our or their privy council for our or their approbation or disallowance: and the said laws, statutes and ordinances, being approved of by us . ., in our or their privy council, shall from thence forth be in full force and virtue within our said province of Georgia. And for the greater ease and encouragement of our loving subjects and such others as shall come to inhabit in our said colony, we do . ordain, that forever hereafter, there shall be a liberty of conscience allowed in the worship of God, to all persons inhabiting, or which shall inhabit or be resident within our said province, and that all such persons, except papists, shall have a free exercise of religion, so they be contented with the quiet and peaceable enjoyment of the same, not giving offense or scandal to the government. And our further will and pleasure is, and we do hereby . declare and grant, that it shall and may be lawful for the said common council . to distribute, convey, assign and set over such particular portions of lands, tenements and hereditaments by these presents granted to the said corporation, unto such our loving subjects, natural born, denizens or others that shall be willing to become our subjects, and live under our allegiance in the said colony, upon such terms, and for such estates, and upon such rents, reservations and conditions as the same may be lawfully granted, and as to the said common council ... shall seem fit and proper.... Provided . that no greater quantity of lands be granted, either en full end and expiration of twenty-one years . ., have full powet and authority to nominate, make, constitute and commission, ordain and appoint, by such name or names, style or styles, as to them shall seem meet and fitting, all and singular such governors, judges, magistrates, ministers and officers, civil and military, both by sea and land, within the said districts, as shall by them be thought fit and needful to be made or used for the said government of the said colony; save always, and except such offices only as shall by us . be from time to time constituted and appointed, for the managing collecting and receiving such revenues, as shall from time to time arise within the said province of Georgia, and become due to us . Provided always . .. that every governor of the said province of Georgia, to be ap,)ointed by the common council of the said corporation, before he shall enter upon or execute the said office of governor, shall be approved by us . ., and shall take such oaths, and shall qualify himself in such manner, in all respects, as any governor or commander in chief of any of our colonies or plantations in America, are by law required to do; and shall give good and sufficient security for observing the several acts of parliament relating to trade and navigation, and to observe and obey all instructions that shall be sent to him by us . ., or any acting under our or their authority, pursuant to the said acts, or any of them. [The corporation may establish and train a militia, fortify and defend the colony, exercise martial law in time of war, &c.] And . Eve do . grant, that the governor and commander in chief of the province of South-Carolina . for the time being, shall at all times hereafter have the chief command of the militia of our said province . do give and grant, unto the said corporation and their successors, full ponver and authority to import and export their goods, at and from any port or ports that shall be appointed by us . within the said province of Georgia, for that purpose, without being obliged to touch at any other port in South-Carolina. And we do . will and declare, that from and after the termination of the said term or [off] twenty-one years, such form of government and method of making laws, statutes and ordinances, for the better governing and ordering the said province of Georgia, and the inhabitants thereof, shall be established and observed within tirely or in parcels, to or for the use, or in trust for any one person, than five hundred acres.... And we do hereby grant and ordain, that such person or persons, for the time being as shall be thereunto appointed by the said corporation, shall . have full power and authority to administer and give the oaths, appointed by an act of parliament, made in the first year of the reign of our late royal father, to be taken instead of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy; and also the oath of abjuration, to all and every person and persons which shall at any time be inhabiting or residing with our said colony; and in like cases to administer the solemn affirmation to any of the persons commonly called quakers, in such manner as by the laws of our realm of Great Britain, the same may be administered. that the said corporation and their successors, shall have full power and authority, for and during the terns of twenty one year . ., to erect and constitute judicatories and courts of record, or other courts, to be held in the name of us . for the hearing and determining of all manner of crimes, offenses, pleas, processes, plaints, actions, matters, causes and things whatsoever, arising or happening, within the said province of Georgia, or between persons of Georgia; whether the same be criminal or civil, and whether the said crimes be capital or not capital, and whether the said pleas be real, personal or mixed: and for awarding and making out executions thereupon . And our further win and pleasure is, that the rents, issues and all other profits, which shall at any time hereafter come to the said corporation, [shall be applied in such manner as The said corporation] or the major part of them which shall be present at any meeting for that purpose assembled, shall think will most improve and enlarge the said colony, and best answer the good purposes herein before mentioned, and for defraying all other charges about the same. And our will and pleasure is, that the said corporation and their successors, shall from time to time give in to one of the principal secretaries of state, and to the commissioners of trade and plantations, accounts of the progresses of the said colony. And our will and pleasure is, that the common council of the said corporation for the time being . shall . unto the
full end and expiration of twenty-one years . ., have full power and authority to nominate, make, constitute and commission, ordain and appoint, by such name or names, style or styles, as to them shall seem meet and fitting, all and singular such governors, judges, magistrates, ministers and officers, civil and military, both by sea and land, within the said districts, as shall by them be thought fit and needful to be made or used for the said government of the said colony; save always, and except such offices only as shall by us . that every governor of the said province of Georgia, to be appointed by the common council of the said corporation, before he shall enter upon or execute the said office of governor, shall be approved by us . we do . do give and grant, unto the said corporation and their successors, full power and authority to import and export their goods, at and from any port or ports that shall be appointed by us . will and declare, that from and after the termination of the said term or [of] twenty-one years, such form of government and method of making laws, statutes and ordinances, for the better governing and ordering the said province of Georgia, and the inhabitants thereof, shall be established and observed within the same, as we . shall hereafter ordain and appoint, and shall be agreeably to law; and that from and after the determination of the said term of twenty-one years, the governor of our said province of Georgia, and all officers civil and military, within the same, shall from time to time be nominated and constituted, and appointed by us .


What Was Georgia's Charter of 1732?

Georgia's Charter of 1732 was a document granted to 20 trustees for the foundation of what became England's last colony in America, the colony of Georgia named after George, the king who issued the charter. The colony was founded by James Oglethorpe, who wanted it to serve as a colony for debtors and the poor. Its other major purpose was to act as a buffer state for South Carolina.

The first colonists came to Georgia in 1733 under the stipulations set forth in the charter. The Charter of 1732 gave the trustees of the colony a great deal of power in setting up and running the colony. They established the government of the colony, levied taxes on the inhabitants and decided on land grants for those who came to settle. The original intent of James Oglethorpe and the trustees was to prohibit large tracts of land from going to any single person and to forbid slavery in the colony. Oglethorpe wanted Georgia to be a colony of second chances for the oppressed. Because of the manner in which Georgia was settled, the colony was quite different from others in America. There was no representation of colonists in establishing laws. Colonists who were once so thrilled to get to America eventually came to resent the control they felt the trustees had over every aspect of their new home.


A Charter for Georgia

Surveying the smoking ruins of their settlements and the freshly dug graves of family members, the people of South Carolina pleaded with England for protection from the Indians. Staring at the stone walls of debtors' prisons, Englishmen pleaded for a chance at a new start.

It would hardly seem that a corporation charter, bristling with legal terms would have much to do with Christian history. But the charter signed by King George II of England on this day, June 9, 1732 , did. It created the colony of Georgia.

Religious reasons for creating the colony did not top the charter. The government's main concern was to get debtors off its hands and show an English presence between the Carolinas and Florida.

But religious considerations were high in the mind of the man who did more than anyone else to promote the Georgia scheme. James Oglethorpe wrote: "In America there are fertile lands sufficient to support all the useless poor in England, and distressed Protestants in Europe yet thousands starve for want of mere sustenance." [Our quotes are given in modern English.]

"Christianity will be extended by carrying out this design since, the good discipline established by the society, will reform the manners of those miserable people, who shall be helped by it and the example of a whole colony, which shall behave in a just, moral, and religious manner, will contribute greatly towards the conversion of the Indians, and remove the prejudices received from the wicked lives of such who have scarce any thing of Christianity but the name." In writing this, Oglethorpe had William Penn's noble experiment, Pennsylvania, in mind.

And so Georgia began as a charitable venture. It is an odd company that forbids management to make a personal profit, but that is exactly how the Georgia corporation was set up. Realizing that poor people had no way to pay their passage, the company paid their fares for them. What is more, it provided them with tools and food until the colony could get on its feet.

Were the goals of the charter met? None of the first settlers was from debtors' prison. Farmers and traders were sent instead. Debtors came later. In its first ten years of existence, the company shipped over 1,800 people to Georgia. More than a third of these were displaced Europeans. Georgia's military objectives were more clearly successful. It's forts helped tame the region and Oglethorpe defeated a Spanish force from Florida double the size of his own.

Unlike some colonies, Georgia did not established a religion. Any Protestant settler could worship as he or she pleased. King George spelled that out in the charter. ". All such persons except Papists [Catholics] shall have a free exercise of their religion so [long as] they be contented with the quiet and peaceable enjoyment of the same not giving offense or scandal to the government."

Oglethorpe was concerned with morals as well as religious freedom. He fought hard to make slavery illegal and to keep rum out of the colony. The settlers fought just as hard to allow both. The result was that Oglethorpe was recalled to England and the settlers got their way. In England he fought for his king. He remained interested in America as long as he lived.


Charter Of Georgia [June 1732] - History


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The last american colony was Georgia, founded 50 years after the other twelve. It was founded by James Oglethorpe, a prison reformer. Oglethorpe was a member of Parliament who was concerned about the atrocious and crowded conditions of the debtor's prisons, when he resolved to ship the inmates to America where there was plenty of room.

King George II granted a Charter for twenty-one years to a board of trustees for the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and westward to the "South Sea". There were originally twenty one trustees named in the 1732 charter "The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia". Over the period of the trusteeship (1732-1755), fifty more were added. The new country was named Georgia, from George II who had granted the charter. The liberties of Englishmen were guaranteed to the colonies, and freedom in religion to all except Catholics.

The purpose of the colony was not just an opportunity for the inmates to begin a new life. It's purpose was also to provide a refuge for persecuted protestants and a military presence between the other colonies and Spanish Florida.

Oglethorpe was chosen governor . He traveled to America with thirty-five families, arriving in the spring of 1733. The land was inhabited by Native Americans, primarily the Creek and Cherokee. On a bluff overlooking the Savannah River and the sea he founded the first city and named it after the river.

Georgia was a haven for those protestants fleeing religious persecution in Europe. In 1734 the first religious immigrants arrived in Savannah. The Salzburgers, a devout protestant people, were led by Oglethorpe up the mouth of the Savannah, where they founded the town of Ebenezer. Others came soon after: John Wesley, the founder of methodism came as a missionary, and a large group of Scottish highlanders.

Georgia was different from the other twelve colonies. It received money from Parliament to get it started, and alone of the 12 colonies, prohibited slavery and the import of alcohol. It is generally believed that lawyers were not allowed in the colony, but no legislation has been found to prove it. The settlers had no control of their own government - it was entirely ruled by the trustees.

The colony fought the Spanish . Georgia was the southernmost colony and bordered Spanish Florida. Savannah was fortified to defend from attacks by the Spanish and Native Americans. In 1739, when England and Spain were at war (King George's War or The War of the Austrian Succession), Oglethorpe led an expedition against St. Augustine. Although they failed to capture the city, they were successful in beating back a Spanish retaliation attack on the colony.

The colonists were not happy with the restrictions placed on the colony. After 12 years as governor, Oglethorpe returned to England bearing their demands. They wanted to be able to have alcohol and slaves, to participate in their own government, and demanded land reform. They were successful. Alcohol was allowed into the colony because it was thought that the importation of alcohol would improve trade. There was strong opposition to slavery, particularly from the religious immigrants, they were in the minority and in 1749 Georgia became a slave colony.

Georgia became a royal colony in 1752. The trustees were unable to establish self-government and gave up before the 21 year charter had expired. Freemen were given the right to vote (unless they were Roman Catholics) and the people elected an assembly. The governor was appointed by the king.

Georgia grew to be more like the other colonies . It had grown quickly after the release of restrictions, though by the time of the American Revolution it was still the least populated. Georgia was still mostly wilderness, but Savannah, though still a small town of wood, was important. Slaves constituted half of the 40,000-50,000 population, and there were a few rich planters. Most of the people, however were small farmers. The English church was the state church after Georgia became a royal colony, but religious freedom was granted to all protestants. At first colonists believed that silk would be an important product of Georgia, since the mulberry tree, which furnishes the natural food of the silkworm, grew wild in Georgia. However, no one was able to succeed at the business. The chief products were rice, indigo, lumber, and Fur Trade with the Native Americans .


Primary Source

The Royal Charter of 1732 (Georgia Archives)

"Oglethorpe and the Indians" from the Frieze of American History, Rotunda Capitol Building


Georgia History

1) According to the Charter of 1732, there were three primary reasons for colonizing Georgia. Based on your knowledge of Georgia's Colonial history, evaluate the success of each of the motivating factors for colonization of Georgia as listed in the Charter of 1772.

2) Identify goods produced in colonial Georgia and explain how these goods contributed to mercantilism.

3) In 3-5 sentences, describe the developments that occurred in Georgia after it became a royal colony.

4) In 3-5 sentences explain the impacts that European contact and settlement had on the Native Americans
This is from a study guide, and I can't find the answers anywhere in my notes or in my book.

No one here will write your assignments for you, but someone may be able to critique your thinking and writing if you post your answers.

Will you explain the questions to me because I don't understand them

1) What were three primary reasons for colonizing Georgia. How successful was each of those reasons? That is, why did people colonize Georgia? Were they escaping something? Did they want better lives? Were they promised something (even if they may not have gotten that)?

2) What things were produced in colonial Georgia? How did these things help make Georgia prosper, both in trading with other colonies and countries, and among fellow Georgians?

3) In 3-5 sentences, tell how Georgia changed after it became a royal colony.

4) In 3-5 sentences, tell how contact with European colonists affected the Native Americans.

Y'all need to just stop! Anonymous i have two answers for you Answer #1 The Europeans destroyed their way of life completely. They gave them disease and death. Then they built an empire over their corpses. Answer #2 Many developments occurred in Georgia after it became a royal colony. One of the major ones is slaves were imported. Cotton and rice plantations were established and rapidly growing. The land of Georgia was purchased more often and women were allowed to inherit land. Overall, Georgia has a huge increase in its development.
HOPE IT HELPS :)


Charter Of Georgia [June 1732] - History


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The last american colony was Georgia, founded 50 years after the other twelve. It was founded by James Oglethorpe, a prison reformer. Oglethorpe was a member of Parliament who was concerned about the atrocious and crowded conditions of the debtor's prisons, when he resolved to ship the inmates to America where there was plenty of room.

King George II granted a Charter for twenty-one years to a board of trustees for the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and westward to the "South Sea". There were originally twenty one trustees named in the 1732 charter "The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia". Over the period of the trusteeship (1732-1755), fifty more were added. The new country was named Georgia, from George II who had granted the charter. The liberties of Englishmen were guaranteed to the colonies, and freedom in religion to all except Catholics.

The purpose of the colony was not just an opportunity for the inmates to begin a new life. It's purpose was also to provide a refuge for persecuted protestants and a military presence between the other colonies and Spanish Florida.

Oglethorpe was chosen governor . He traveled to America with thirty-five families, arriving in the spring of 1733. The land was inhabited by Native Americans, primarily the Creek and Cherokee. On a bluff overlooking the Savannah River and the sea he founded the first city and named it after the river.

Georgia was a haven for those protestants fleeing religious persecution in Europe. In 1734 the first religious immigrants arrived in Savannah. The Salzburgers, a devout protestant people, were led by Oglethorpe up the mouth of the Savannah, where they founded the town of Ebenezer. Others came soon after: John Wesley, the founder of methodism came as a missionary, and a large group of Scottish highlanders.

Georgia was different from the other twelve colonies. It received money from Parliament to get it started, and alone of the 12 colonies, prohibited slavery and the import of alcohol. It is generally believed that lawyers were not allowed in the colony, but no legislation has been found to prove it. The settlers had no control of their own government - it was entirely ruled by the trustees.

The colony fought the Spanish . Georgia was the southernmost colony and bordered Spanish Florida. Savannah was fortified to defend from attacks by the Spanish and Native Americans. In 1739, when England and Spain were at war (King George's War or The War of the Austrian Succession), Oglethorpe led an expedition against St. Augustine. Although they failed to capture the city, they were successful in beating back a Spanish retaliation attack on the colony.

The colonists were not happy with the restrictions placed on the colony. After 12 years as governor, Oglethorpe returned to England bearing their demands. They wanted to be able to have alcohol and slaves, to participate in their own government, and demanded land reform. They were successful. Alcohol was allowed into the colony because it was thought that the importation of alcohol would improve trade. There was strong opposition to slavery, particularly from the religious immigrants, they were in the minority and in 1749 Georgia became a slave colony.

Georgia became a royal colony in 1752. The trustees were unable to establish self-government and gave up before the 21 year charter had expired. Freemen were given the right to vote (unless they were Roman Catholics) and the people elected an assembly. The governor was appointed by the king.

Georgia grew to be more like the other colonies . It had grown quickly after the release of restrictions, though by the time of the American Revolution it was still the least populated. Georgia was still mostly wilderness, but Savannah, though still a small town of wood, was important. Slaves constituted half of the 40,000-50,000 population, and there were a few rich planters. Most of the people, however were small farmers. The English church was the state church after Georgia became a royal colony, but religious freedom was granted to all protestants. At first colonists believed that silk would be an important product of Georgia, since the mulberry tree, which furnishes the natural food of the silkworm, grew wild in Georgia. However, no one was able to succeed at the business. The chief products were rice, indigo, lumber, and Fur Trade with the Native Americans .


Primary Source

The Royal Charter of 1732 (Georgia Archives)

"Oglethorpe and the Indians" from the Frieze of American History, Rotunda Capitol Building


Georgia's History

The Charter of 1732 was the beginning of the original Georgia colony, the last of the 13 original colonies to be established. Still under British rule, for it was only a colony and the United States of America did not exist at the time, was set up for debtors in order to give them a fresh start at their lives. However, four groups of people were not allowed to come to the colony: Catholics, so as not to break their bond with the Church of England African Americans, in order to keep slavery out of the colony drug dealers, for alcohol was prohibited and lawyers, for Oglethorpe felt the people should solve their problems out of court and did not think lawyers would let them do this.

For those who could move to the colony, they were promised 50 acres of land, tools, and enough food for an entire year. Regulations included: 1) the men had to defend the colonies from enemies, 2) land could not be sold and no money could be borrowed on it, but it could be passed down to a male heir, 3) the given seeds and tools had to be used cultivate land for new settlement, 4) the settlers had to grow mulberry trees to attract silk worms (the cocoons were used to make silk), and 5) all the regulations established by the trustees were to be obeyed.

Advertisement for the New World was all over England. People came in order to gain religious freedoms, adventure, and a new start for a better life.


Charter Of Georgia [June 1732] - History

Unit 2 Vocabulary - Georgia’s Colonization

1. Oglethorpe, James (1696-1785) - one of the 21 members of the trustees who established Georgia only trustee to come to the colony and served as the de facto military and governmental leader of the colony.

2. Salzburgers - a group of Protestants from Austria who were invited to settle in Georgia due to religious persecution they were experiencing in Europe established the towns of Ebenezer and New Ebenezer were some of the most successful colonists.

3. Tomochichi - was the Chief of the Yamacraw Indians. Tomochichi befriended James Oglethorpe and allowed him to establish the colony of Georgia on Yamacraw territory.

4. Trustee period (1732-1751) - the time period when Georgia was governed by the trustees. The trustees created many regulations during the time period, including a ban on slavery, liquor and liquor dealers, lawyers, and Catholics.

5. Musgrove, Mary (1700-1763) - Creek Indian woman who served as the translator for James Oglethorpe and Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi.

6. Malcontent - a group of colonists who complained about the trustee regulations for the Georgia colony primary complaint was the ban on slavery and rum. Eventually the malcontents got their way as liquor and slavery were allowed in Georgia in the 1750s.

7. Highland Scots - from the Highlands of Scotland and known as some of the best fighters in Europe in the 1700’s. James Oglethorpe brought a group to Georgia to serve as soldiers for the colony. The Highland Scots founded the town of Darien.

8. Charter of 1732 - the document that formally established the colony of Georgia outlines the reasons for Georgia’s founding and the regulations set up by the trustees.

9. Buffer Colony - one of three reasons for Georgia’s founding colony was to serve as a defensive buffer between Spanish Florida and the successful English colony of South Carolina.

10. Charity - one of the three reasons for Georgia’s founding. James Oglethorpe and the trustees hoped to bring debtors and England’s “worthy poor” to the colony to begin new lives. However, no debtor was ever released from debtors’ prison to come to Georgia.

11. Mulberry Trees - used in the production of silk. The silk worms were placed on the trees and used the leaves as food. The Georgia colonists were required to set aside a portion of their land to grow the trees.

12. Savannah - The first capital of Georgia founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe.


Mrs. Streeter's 8th Grade Georgia Studies Class

SS8H1.b Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the Spanish and British in the Southeastern area.

European nations had different reasons for exploring North America, specifically the Southeast. Economic competition between the French, the Dutch, the Spanish, and the English was a primary cause for the exploration of North America. Each desired to build a large empire that would create political and economic dominance in the world.

France, interested in developing a serious fur trade in North America, was primarily interested in Louisiana, the Ohio Valley, and Canada. However, in 1562, Jean Ribault explored Georgia&rsquos coastline in search of the ideal location on which to establish a French colony. He chose a South Carolina location instead. French
Protestants eventually moved from South Carolina into Georgia as they sought religious freedom in the 1730&rsquos.

Spain was interested in North America (particularly the Southeast) for the three G&rsquos: God, Gold and Glory. Converting the American Indians to Christianity, filling the Spanish monarch&rsquos treasury with gold, and seeking personal fortune and fame were the goals of Spanish conquistadores. The Spanish never realized the need for self-sustaining colonies as they were preoccupied with their search for gold.

England desired to create permanent colonies in North America to support the economic policy of mercantilism (the economic policy in which a country seeks to export more than it imports). The &ldquomother country&rdquo developed colonies that produced raw materials that would be shipped &ldquohome&rdquo for production into finished products. These products would be shipped back to the colony for purchase by the colonists. Other reasons for creating colonies included a desire for &ldquoreligious freedom&rdquo and a place to begin a &ldquonew life&rdquo.

SS8H1.c Evaluate the impact of Spanish contact on American Indians, including the explorations of Hernando DeSoto and the establishment of Spanish missions along the barrier islands.

Spanish contact had a dramatic impact on the American Indian culture in Georgia. Hernando DeSoto, the first known European explorer in Georgia, was directly responsible for starving and killing a large number of American Indians in his quest for God, gold and glory. Without an established plan for exploration, DeSoto and his men moved from Florida into southwest Georgia in their search for gold. The American Indians often provided DeSoto false information regarding vast stores of gold further north in an attempt to protect their own villages/towns. Though DeSoto never found the gold he desired, he did introduce Europe to southeastern North America. The journals maintained by DeSoto&rsquos men are the first to give insight into the Mississippian chiefdom culture. DeSoto&rsquos journey is credited with introducing pigs to North America and devastating diseases to the American Indian culture. Smallpox was spread by the extensive trade network utilized by the Mississippians. Measles and influenza also attacked the Mississippians at alarming rates. DeSoto&rsquos failed expedition (his men never found gold and he died near the Mississippi River and was buried in the river) led to increased efforts by the French and Spanish to explore the southeast coastline and to establish colonies. Colonization efforts were not met with great success. However, the most successful Spanish colonization attempt was during the &ldquoMission Period&rdquo from 1568 &ndash 1684. It was during this period that Spain built several missions (churches) on the barrier islands as well as on the mainland. These sites included missions on Cumberland Island, St. Catherine&rsquos Island, and near the Okefenokee Swamp. Missions built on the mainland were located as far inland as the current cities of Valdosta and Lumber City.

​Spanish missions were located near Mississippian towns so the priests and friars could achieve their primary goal: the conversion of the American Indians to Christianity (Catholicism). Consequently, the missions encouraged the American Indians to embrace Spanish political and economic systems. As an example, to show allegiance to the Spanish, unmarried American Indian males were required to work in Saint Augustine for several months out of the year, causing considerable change to the American Indian society. The close contact with the Spanish brought disease and death to the American Indians, who were increasingly disturbed by the changes to their own culture. By the mid-1600&rsquos, the Spanish mission system was crumbling. British influence (based in the South Carolina colony) often stirred American Indians to raid the missions and, by 1680&rsquos, coastal missions were abandoned by the Spanish. A pirate raid in 1684 pushed the remainder of the mission American Indians into Florida, ending the Spanish mission period in Georgia.

****SS8H2 a. Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense).

The colony of Georgia was officially founded on February 12, 1733. Historical research has concluded that, contrary to popular belief, Georgia was not a debtor&rsquos colony and not a single debtor was released from prison to settle the 13th colony. In addition, James Oglethorpe was not the primary &ldquofounder&rdquo of Georgia nor was he the colony&rsquos official &ldquogovernor.&rdquo He was one of 21 trustees who was responsible for governing the colony.

Nevertheless, the story of Georgia&rsquos founding is still unique in comparison to the establishment of the other 12 colonies. The intent of this standard is to gain a better understanding of the events that led to the founding of Georgia and the people and circumstances that created Georgia&rsquos colonial history. Additionally, understanding the differences between the Trustee and the Royal Periods of the colony will help identify how these changes shaped the future state of Georgia economically, politically, and socially.

Georgia&rsquos Charter of 1732 outlined in detail the reasons for Georgia&rsquos settlement and is a remarkable document based on its provisions for the colonists. Georgia was founded for three primary reasons: philanthropy, economics, and defense. Of the three, the only true success the colony had under the Trustees was Georgia&rsquos defense of South Carolina against Spanish invasion.

Philanthropy . Moved to action by his concern for the treatment of prison conditions for indebted people, James Oglethorpe was hopeful to create a colony for debtors and the &ldquoworthy poor.&rdquo His dream, however, never became a reality as no debtor was ever released from prison to live in the colony. Philanthropic work in the colony was guided by the details of the Charter of 1732. The charter provided the guidelines for the colonists of the new colony. While most of Georgia&rsquos first settlers were not wealthy, many were skilled craftsmen who were looking for a &ldquonew start&rdquo in the new colony. Incentives, including 50 acres of land (500 acres if the colonists paid their own passage), one year&rsquos supply of food, and free seed and agricultural supplies for a year, were too enticing for many people to disregard and was more than they could expect to have if they remained in England. This philanthropic gesture caused many to try their luck in the new colony.

Economics . Mercantilism was a guiding factor in the establishment of the colony of Georgia. The Trustees hoped that the colonists of Georgia would be able to produce four agricultural products that could not be grown successfully in England. Rice, indigo, wine, and, most importantly, silk were the crops that were desired in England. In fact, silk was so important to the trustees that all colonists were required to set aside land on which to grow mulberry trees. The mulberry leaves were the food of choice for silkworms. Tobacco, as in other southern colonies, was grown by some Georgia colonists but this crop was not an important crop until the late colonial period and early statehood period.

None of these products reached the level of success desired by the Trustees. During the colonial period, Georgia&rsquos wine industry never produced sufficient quantities for successful export and the silk industry did not return the profits that were desired. Rice, indigo, and tobacco were more successful during the Royal period and early statehood period. A helpful mnemonic for these crops is the W.R.I.S.T. crops (wine, rice, indigo, silk, and tobacco).

Defense . The most important reason for Georgia&rsquos founding was defense, primarily against the Spanish in Florida. In the 1730&rsquos, South Carolina was a profitable British colony that was threatened by Spanish military outposts in Florida. The Georgia colony&rsquos role was to serve as a military &ldquobuffer&rdquo between the two. Evidence of the buffer zone includes the forts that Oglethorpe constructed between Spanish Florida and Georgia and his bringing the highly-skilled Highland Scots to reoccupy the abandoned Fort King George (near modern-day Darien) in 1736.

The War of Jenkins&rsquo Ear was important to the survival of the colony of Georgia and helped Georgia serve its function as a buffer for South Carolina from the Spanish in Florida. The war was named after a British captain, Robert Jenkins, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish after he attempted to raid one of their ships. Jenkins, who survived the attack, brought his ear to the English Parliament which in turn caused the English public to demand retribution against the Spanish.

Once war was declared, James Oglethorpe made a failed attempt to capture St. Augustine. After the British retreated, Spain decided to attack and destroy the young Georgia colony. The Spanish attacked St. Simon&rsquos Island but were soundly defeated by the colonists and their Indian allies during the Battle of Bloody Marsh. After this battle, the Spanish never overtly threatened the colony again. In 1748 both sides agreed that the border between English Georgia and Spanish Florida would be the St. Johns River.

The Charter of 1732 created strict guidelines for Georgia colonists. To ensure an unbiased role in the colony, Trustees were not paid, could not own land, or hold office in the colony. The Trustees genuinely believed the guidelines of the charter to be beneficial to the colonists. Because the colony was to support the &ldquoworthy poor,&rdquo the Trustees initially forbade rum (hard alcohol) as they feared hard liquor would cause the colonists to become idle and avoid hard work. Slavery was also forbidden as the Trustees hoped to avoid what had happened in South Carolina: the creation of large plantations versus the small farmers who struggled (the wealthy v. the poor). The Trustees also barred liquor dealers and Catholics from the colony. Some historians indicate that lawyers may have been banned as well. Defending the colony against Spanish, French or American Indian attack was a requirement of the colonists, a major provision of the Charter of 1732. The production of silk forced the colonists to grow mulberry trees. Colonists could not sell their land and their land must be passed down to male heirs, and they had to obey all Trustee rules. The original Charter also included a prohibition of Jews settling in the colony. However, when the colonists were besieged with medical concerns, a group of Portuguese Jews arrived with a doctor. Oglethorpe, violating Trustee rules, allowed the Jews to settle in Savannah and Dr. Samuel Nunes was credited with &ldquosaving the colony.&rdquo

The provisions detailed in the Charter of 1732 eventually caused discontent among the colonists. Believing that the provisions were causing few opportunities for economic success, some colonists petitioned for changes in the charter.

****SS8H2 b. Analyze the relationship between James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove in establishing the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff.

The positive relationship between Oglethorpe, Tomochichi and Musgrove was essential to the development of the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff. Without Tomochichi&rsquos generous gift of land to Oglethorpe, the colony&rsquos initial location would have been elsewhere. The relationship was mutually beneficial to all three. Oglethorpe provided protection to the Yamacraw and trade opportunities to both Tomochichi and Musgrove. Musgrove used her language skills to bring the British Oglethorpe and Yamacraw Tomochichi to a land agreement as well as a lifelong friendship. Musgrove benefitted by expanding her trade opportunities with both the British colonists and the Yamacraw. Her assistance was rewarded with land grants from Oglethorpe and Tomochichi. The establishment of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff was dependent on the genuine friendship forged between Oglethorpe, Tomochichi and Musgrove.

James Edward Oglethorpe (1696-1785) is often credited as the &ldquofounder&rdquo and &ldquofirst governor&rdquo of Georgia. He is portrayed as a man who was so upset about the treatment of Britain&rsquos debtors that he established a colony for the &ldquoworthy poor&rdquo helping those released from debtors&rsquo prison start a new life in Georgia. While this myth is historically inaccurate, it should be understood that Oglethorpe did play an important role in the establishment of Georgia and served as its unofficial leader during the colony&rsquos early years.

Oglethorpe, a member of the British Parliament, was instrumental in the push for British prison reform after his friend, Robert Castell, died from small pox. Castell was sent to prison due to his inability to pay his debts and ultimately suffered from a disease acquired from his cellmate. Oglethorpe campaigned to reform Britain&rsquos prisons and considered the possibility of creating a colony for those in debtor&rsquos prison as well as Britain&rsquos &ldquoworthy poor.&rdquo Unfortunately, Oglethorpe&rsquos dreams of a colony created to help debtors pay off their debts never came to pass.

Still, Oglethorpe lobbied to create a new colony and eventually he, along with 20 other Trustees, was granted a charter to establish Georgia. Oglethorpe&rsquos role in the creation of Georgia is heightened due to the fact that he was the only trustee to travel to the new colony. Oglethorpe took on the roles of both military and de facto civilian leader of the colony, and in many cases acted against the policies of the trustees. During his time in Georgia, Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and American Indians, allowed groups of Jewish, Scottish, and German immigrants to settle in the colony, created the towns of Savannah and Fredericka (on St. Simons Island), and fought the Spanish on three separate occasions. Oglethorpe left Georgia in 1743, never to return. Nonetheless, Oglethorpe was alive to witness the colony he helped realize break away from England and become part of the United States of America.

Tomochichi was the chief the Yamacraw Indians. Having created this tribe in 1728 with members of the Creek and Yamasee Indians, Tomochichi&rsquos people (around 200) believed that future opportunities would come from an alliance with the British instead of the Spanish. Tomochichi allowed Oglethorpe to settle on Yamacraw Bluff (the future home of Savannah) in hopes that the British would serve as allies and trading partners.

Oglethorpe and Tomochichi developed a strong and long lasting friendship. Through the help of Mary Musgrove, who served as a translator, Tomochichi advised Oglethorpe on matters of Indian affairs and relations with the Spanish. He traveled with Oglethorpe to England and helped establish English speaking schools for American Indians in Georgia. When Tomochichi died in 1739, he was said to be in his 90&rsquos. Based on his achievements and service to the colony, he was buried in Savannah with full British military honors.

Mary Musgrove is best known for her service as the translator for James Oglethorpe and Tomochichi. Born to a Creek Indian mother and British father, Musgrove spoke both languages and understood the norms of both cultures. In 1717, Mary married fur trader John Musgrove, and they set up a trading post near the Savannah River. Mary&rsquos fluency in both Creek and English served her well in her role as a trader and business woman.

Musgrove became involved in the affairs of the colony of Georgia after her husband accompanied Oglethorpe on a trip to England. After this voyage, the Trustees gave John land near Yamacraw Bluff. The Musgroves moved their trading post to this area and Mary continued to manage the successful business after John died in 1735. In addition to her business, Musgrove served as Oglethorpe&rsquos personal interpreter from 1733-1743.

Musgrove continued to move up the ranks of colonial society, especially after her third and final marriage to the Reverend Thomas Bosomworth. She offered many years of service as the colony&rsquos primary Indian liaison. However, she became a thorn in the side of the colony&rsquos leadership after the Trustee period. Throughout her life, she received land grants from Tomochichi and other Creek chiefs. Nonetheless, British and Georgia officials refused to recognize her claims. Taking matters into her own hands, Musgrove lead a group of 200 Creek Indians to Savannah to argue for her land rights. She also took her land claim fight to the British courts.

In 1760, after several years of struggle, Musgrove and Georgia Royal Governor Henry Ellis compromised, and Musgrove received St. Catherine&rsquos Island and a large sum of money. In turn, Musgrove gave up her other land claims. Musgrove died on St. Catherine&rsquos Island sometime after 1763.

The city of Savannah was the first step in realizing the colony of Georgia. Due to the cordial relationship between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi, aided by the translating skills of Musgrove, the city began its life on February 12, 1733 when the settlers arrived at Yamacraw Bluff. Chief Tomochichi agreed to move his people upstream from the bluff so that Oglethorpe could establish his inaugural town at that location. Located on the Savannah River about 15 miles inland, the forty-foot-high bluff was the last colonial capital to be developed by the British in America. Construction of the city was based on European design influences of the day with which Oglethorpe was well acquainted. The city, designed by Oglethorpe, was laid out in a series of grids that allowed for wide streets intertwined with tree-covered squares and parks. Colonists located businesses on the squares and built places for public town meetings. As the city grew, the design was repeated. Of the original 24 squares, 22 still exist today. Savannah is recognized as one of the most outstanding examples of eighteenth century town planning.

*SS8H2c. Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period.

The Trustee Period in Georgia&rsquos history was a unique though unsuccessful social and economic experiment. The Trustees, who were for the most part religious men and social reformers, wanted to start a colony of selfsufficient yeomen farmers who were not influenced by alcohol and not dependent on slavery. In turn, the British government hoped that the colony that would produce agricultural products that Britain had been forced to import from other countries. These goods, including silk and wine, proved to be lackluster in terms of generating profit. Nonetheless, as a buffer colony, Georgia did prove its worth by successfully defending both South Carolina and itself from the Spanish threat in Florida. In the end, due to the permanent departure of James Oglethorpe in 1743 and the complaints made by the Malcontents concerning the selling of rum and their desire to institute slavery in Georgia, the Trustee period ended one year before the Charter of 1732 was set to expire. The lofty goals of the Trustees never came to pass.

Jews first arrived in the Georgia colony five months after Oglethorpe landed at Yamacraw Bluff. Though originally banned from the colony by the Charter of 1732, Oglethorpe made an exception to the Trustee&rsquos provisions because one of the 42 Jews was a doctor. Having lost the colony&rsquos only doctor and at least 20 colonists to fever, Oglethorpe was pleased to have medical assistance to slow the yellow fever from spreading. Dr. Samuel Nunes offered his services to the colonists and those who followed his prescription of cold baths and cool drinks survived. Another Jew, Abraham de Lyon, was experienced in viticulture (wine making). Oglethorpe hoped he would be able to assist the colonists in wine production. Fourteen of the Jews were offered land by Oglethorpe and the group remained in the colony, even though they suffered from language, cultural, and religious differences. The Jews eventually established Congregation Mickve Israel, which is the oldest Jewish congregation in the South and the third oldest in the United States.

The Salzburgers were a group of peaceful, hard-working German-speaking Protestant refugees from present day Austria. Persecuted by the Catholic monarch of their province who had issued the Edict of Expulsion, giving the Salzburgers three months to leave their native land, King George II, who was himself a German Protestant, offered the Salzburgers the opportunity to settle in the colony of Georgia.

Upon arriving in Georgia, the Salzburgers settled a town they named Ebenezer, meaning &ldquoStone of Help.&rdquo However, this settlement was too far inland and located in an area that was too swampy with poor water. Many Salzburgers died during their first two years in Georgia. Eventually, the Salzburgers were given permission to relocate to a better location which they named &ldquoNew Ebenezer.&rdquo Once they settled in this new town, they became some of the most successful and industrious colonists in Georgia. They are given credit for being the first group of Georgians to develop a water powered grist mill, a Sunday school, and an orphanage. They were also the only group to have any large-scale success with silk production.

The Salzburgers remained strictly anti-slavery during the later colonial years and were extremely loyal to the Trustees. This was due to the help the Trustees gave the Salzburgers during their immigration to the colony. It should also be noted that Georgia&rsquos first Patriot governor, John Adam Treutlen, was a Salzburger.

The town of New Ebenezer was damaged during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars. However, the church they built in 1763 still stands today. It&rsquos home to the longest existing Lutheran Congregation in the United States. Many of the Salzburgers&rsquo descendants still live in the area in which they settled over 250 years ago.

Though the Highland Scots (Scottish Highlanders) shared the Salzburgers&rsquo anti-slavery beliefs and valued the importance of hard work and religion, they were quite different in many aspects. The Highland Scots were brought to Georgia by James Oglethorpe based on their reputation for being some of the best soldiers in the world. The group was given land near the abandoned Fort King George, which they named Darien. With the promise of owning their own land, the Highland Scots fought in the Battle of Bloody Marsh and in two failed campaigns to capture St. Augustine, Florida. Many of the Highland Scots&rsquo ancestors played important roles in Georgia&rsquos history. Today, McIntosh County is named in honor of one of these important families.

The provisions created by the Charter of 1732 eventually caused discontent among the colonists. Dissenters, known as the Malcontents, argued that they were not financially obligated to Oglethorpe and the Trustees as they had paid their own way to the colony. They complained that the limitations placed on land ownership and the ban on slavery stifled their economic opportunities. They resented the restriction on purchasing rum. The ban on rum was lifted in 1732. Having petitioned the Trustees to allow slavery and being declined on multiple occasions, many Malcontent leaders moved from the Georgia colony. However, through written pamphlets demanding change, the Malcontents eventually made their voices known in Georgia and Great Britain. In response to these vocal and written demands, by 1750, the Trustees had passed a law that allowed slavery. The Trustee period would end by 1751, one year before the end of the Charter of 1732 was designed to end.

****SS8H2d. Explain the transition of Georgia into a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, alcohol, and government.

Rules concerning land ownership, the sale of rum, and slavery were relaxed or ended during the twilight of the Trustee period and the colony of Georgia profoundly changed during the Royal period. The Trustees, frustrated with the lack of economic and social success of the colony, officially surrendered Georgia&rsquos charter to the British government, one year before the expiration of the Charter of 1732.

Land ownership rules were relaxed in the royal colony. More land could be purchased as slavery was creating the need for more fertile land. Women were allowed to own land. Georgia&rsquos population grew due to improved land policies, land gains from American Indians and the Spanish, and the surge of settlers and slaves that land availability brought to the colony. Some new settlers were considered undesirable by established Georgia colonists and were given the derogatory name &ldquocrackers.&rdquo This group laid claims to the western frontier of the colony. More settlers improved Georgia&rsquos economy and this eventually led to increases in the colony&rsquos borders.

Slavery was desired by many of the Georgia colonists as they believed that they would more effectively compete with other colonies, specifically South Carolina. In 1749, just prior to the royal period, slavery was allowed in Georgia. Between 1750 and 1775, the number of slaves increased from 500 to 18,000. Slaves had no rights, were not allowed to marry, and were not allowed to live where they wanted. Slaves who broke these rules were punished. Slavery was a boom to the colony&rsquos economy as agricultural production began to explode, particularly on rice plantations.
*** Slavery ship animation map (click the link)

*** Slave voyages database (click the link) Alcohol was transported into the Georgia colony by way of South Carolina, causing disputes between the colonies. By 1742, the prohibition against rum was no longer enforced in the Georgia colony, and by 1749, the Rum Act was repealed by Parliament. During the Royal Period, rum production increased in the colony.

***Tip***: Information about the royal governors is provided as background for understanding the difference between the Trustee Colony and Royal Colony. It is not necessary to know the details of the royal governors but, instead, should know of the changes that occurred as the Trustee Colony transitioned to the Royal Colony.

As a royal colony, governance of the colony was returned to the king. He utilized royal governors to administer the colony. Trustee laws were repealed. In 1754, John Reynolds was appointed to be Georgia&rsquos first royal governor . During his tenure, Georgia&rsquos bi-cameral General Assembly, comprised of an elected Commons House of Assembly and an appointed Upper House of Assembly, met to determine laws for the colony . A first act was to require all males between 16 and 60 to be organized into militias another act required all males to work on building roads at least 12 days per year. White males who owned property could vote and a court system was established to settle disputes . Reynolds often found himself at odds with the General Assembly and many colonists were not fond of him. Complaints about him found their way to the British government and, in 1756, he was recalled to Britain to address the complaints but he did not relinquish his position.

Appointed to govern in Reynolds&rsquos place was Henry Ellis, who would become a more popular governor than Reynolds. It was under his leadership that eight parishes were established along Georgia&rsquos coast and a workable friendship was established with the leaders of the Creek nation, who were long irritated by the land claims of Mary Musgrove. His ability to manage trade agreements between the Creek and local traders encouraged stability in the colony. His poor health, due to Georgia&rsquos heat, forced him to take on other responsibilities, including a governorship in Nova Scotia, though he never fulfilled the appointment. He was, instead, called to Britain, where he influenced American colonial affairs as an advisor to the Prime Minister.

The most able of the royal governors was James Wright, a practicing attorney and plantation owner in South Carolina (his father was South Carolina&rsquos chief justice). His appointment as Ellis&rsquos replacement happened as Georgia was experiencing westward growth. He encouraged neighboring American Indians to cede land to the colony. As revolutionary feelings ignited, Wright was determined to maintain his loyalties to Britain and he enforced the Stamp Act. In fact, Georgia was the only colony in which stamps were actually sold. Though he was popular and thought to be an efficient leader, Wright was powerless to stop the advancing revolutionary spirit in the Georgia colony. Placed under house arrest in 1776, he fled captivity and made his way to London where he encouraged a full-scale British attack on the Georgia colony in 1778. Under British control again, Wright&rsquos return to Georgia did not generate the support he once enjoyed in the colony. Revolutionary radicals were increasing in numbers and they did not support Wright&rsquos efforts to govern. Wright sailed for London when the British evacuated Savannah in July 1782. He never returned to the Georgia colony and died in England in 1785.

****SS8H2 e. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced and traded in colonial Georgia.

Colonial Georgia had the shortest colonial experience when compared to other British colonies. It had the smallest population and was the least developed. With the removal of economic restrictions, Georgia&rsquos economy was almost immediately improved. During Georgia&rsquos colonial period, colonists were determined to find economic success through agriculture.

Silk production , encouraged by the Trustees, was an effort to compete with the successful silk industries of France and Italy. Colonists planted mulberry trees in an effort to provide sustenance for silk worms. As many Georgia colonists were untrained in silk production, skilled Italian silk makers were brought to the colony, and within a year, silk was exported to Britain. The Salzburgers attempted to establish a silk industry, but seasonal temperatures were harmful to the sensitive silkworms. Georgia&rsquos silk industry, though hopeful at first, never became the lucrative industry the colonists desired. Eventually, the hardier crop of cotton replaced the silk industry.

Rice, Georgia&rsquos first staple crop , became a profitable agricultural commodity along the coast and encouraged the rise in great wealth for producers of the grain. As Georgia&rsquos ban on slavery ended in 1750, conditions became favorable for the establishment of large rice plantations to be harvested by slave labor. Rice was initially grown in inland freshwater swamps in coastal Georgia and along Georgia&rsquos principal tidal rivers. The rice rivers (the Savannah, the Ogeechee, the Altamaha, and the Satilla) eventually saw the rise of production increase to 40,000 acres.

Indigo , the plant that produced a bluish-purple dye, was highly desired by British textile producers. The British government offered a bounty (a bonus) of six pence per pound to ensure the production of large quantities of indigo. By 1755, Georgia was in the very early stages of indigo production, exporting 4,500 pounds that year. The exportation of indigo peaked in 1770, with more than 22,000 pounds. It&rsquos interesting to note that long-term exposure to noxious vapors produced by indigo production and the disease-carrying insects the plants gave support to may have reduced the length of the lives of slaves involved in indigo processing by five to seven years.
Other products produced in colonial Georgia included timber products, tobacco, and furs. Trades included blacksmiths, silversmiths, tailors, and potters, but most were involved in small scale farming.

Trade partners included American Indians (furs), nearby South Carolina, and Britain and other European nations. ​​


Organization

In 1998, Georgia FBLA, Inc., was formed and established a Board of Directors to serve as the governing body of Georgia FBLA. The Board of Directors consists of twelve voting members including two business representatives (appointed), five elected advisers representing the five areas, four elected at-large advisers, and an adviser representing the Middle Level.

Effective March 2018, Georgia FBLA is now organized on four levels:

Local – consisting of the local chapters and members
Region – a grouping of chapters within a limited geographic territory for the purposes of region leadership and competitive events (15 regions)
Area – a grouping of two or three regions for representation on the State Executive Council (state officers) and the Board of Directors (5 areas)
State – all of the local chapters and regions throughout the state

Over the years, the number of Georgia FBLA regions varied due to population and active participation statistics. In July 2008, the Board of Directors realigned the regions from 11 to 15 regions and organized the state into 5 areas.


Watch the video: The Colony of Georgia Founded in 1732