The Republican period is an essential period to study in order to understand the creation of the Roman Empire. We can trace the city's successes and expansion of the city through its process of urban renewal and construction of ancient monuments. Let's take a look at monuments in the Forum Boarium, sacred area of S. Omobono, and Largo Argentina.
Rome in 3D
What is our “Rome in 3D” project in general? Broadly speaking, it is an attempt to give you an opportunity to take a look at Rome as it really was, by the eyes of humans who lived there in that time. Due to this, we are already paying much attention (and will proceed) to the level of details, adding realistic materials, colors, visual and weather effects. That’s why we are concentrating just on the center of the Rome for now, just to focus on quality and details.
Now we are planning to add a little additional territory (such as Circus Maximus, Velabrum area), and release our project as a 3d walkthrough application. I hope we will be able to complete it in a year approximately.
Boasting some impressive in-video lighting features, the animation focuses on the monumental scale that was flaunted by Rome during its apical architectural stage. And furthermore according to the animators of this video – this movie is just a promo, with the entire scope (which took years to animate) to be inducted into a game engine that would be accessible to the interested people.Baths of Caracalla
The « History in 3D » creative team continues working on a virtual reconstruction of ancient Rome. Our goal is to carry out this project at a new qualitative level using modern available data and technical capabilities. Some time ago, three video trailers about Rome in 3D reconstruction have already been released on our YouTube channel, representing the various stages of work on the reconstruction. Since the recent video was released, a lot of work has been done to update and expand the content, and we believe that the project has been transformed crucially and reached a new level of quality.
Here, our 3rd trailer about Colosseum district:
Cincinnatus’ Early Days and Troubles with His Son
It is unclear when Cincinnatus was born, though we may assume that he lived during the 5th century BC, as we know that he was appointed as a consul of the Roman Republic in 460 BC. In Livy’s History of Rome , Cincinnatus is first introduced in relation to his son, Caeso Quinctius. Livy describes Caeso as such:
“Caeso was a member of the Quinctian house, and his noble descent and great bodily strength and stature made him a daring and intrepid young man. To these gifts of the gods he added brilliant military qualities and eloquence as a public speaker, so that no one in the State was held to surpass him either in speech or action. When he took his stand in the middle of a group of patricians, conspicuous amongst them all, carrying as it were in his voice and personal strength all dictatorships and consulships combined, he was the one to withstand the attacks of the tribunes and the storms of popular indignation.”
Cincinnatus leaves the plow for the Roman dictatorship – Juan Antonio Ribera, c. 1806. ( Public Domain )
Livy goes on to say that Caeso and his men frequently chased the tribunes of the plebeians from the Forum, thus making it difficult for them to partake in the political life of the republic: “Under his leadership the tribunes were often driven from the Forum, the plebeians routed and chased away, anybody who stood in his way went off stripped and beaten.”
2 Ancient Democratic Institutions
One of the most important differences between ancient Greek democracy and ancient Roman Republicanism was institutional. Both ancient Greeks and Roman thinkers conceived of society as containing two permanently distinct and mutually antagonistic groups: the few (the rich) and the many (the poor). Greek democracy and Roman republicanism dealt with this fact in different ways. For Greek thinkers, democracy was simply the rule of the many over the few, whereas aristocracy or oligarchy was the rule of the few over the many. Power could only be held by the masses or by the elite.
History of the Seven Hills
According to the Roman tradition, Romulus is the founder of Rome city. He founded the city in April 21,753 BCE on Palatine Hill. The small settlements that first occupied the seven hills were scattered all over. The occupants of the Seven Hills of Rome started participating in religious games. In the process, the games brought the scattered people together. Suddenly, the city of Rome came into existence due to coming together of the scattered groups. People worked in unity drained water, logged, vegetated valleys, and converted them into markets. Later, they constructed the Servian Walls in the early 4 th century BCE in order to protect the seven hills.
Five of the Seven Hills (Esquiline Hill, Viminal Hill, Aventine Hill, Caelian Hill, and Quirinal Hill) are crowded with parks, monuments and buildings. In addition, Palatine Hill acts as an archaeological site while Capitoline Hill currently hosts the city hall of Rome.
Famous People of Ancient Rome
Crassus (Marcus Licinius Crassus: 115-53 B.C.). A noble and very rich Roman, a follower of Sulla who became famous in 71 B.C. with the cruel repression of Spartacus’s slave revolt.
In 60 B.C. he became part of the first triumvirate with Caesar and Pompeius and was appointed consul in 55 B.C. While proconsul in Syria, he organized a military expedition against the Parthians. This ended with a disastrous defeat in Carrhae (today known as Harran, Turkey) in which the ensigns of the legions were lost and where he himself lost his life.
Caesar (Gaius Julius Caesar: 100-44 B.C.). A representative of the popular faction and member of the Julia family (which allegedly descended from Aeneas), he led a brilliant political career and formed the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey in 60 B.C.
He became consul in 59 B.C. and conquered Gaul and up as far as Britannia. The Senate and Pompey deprived him of his military power. In 49 B.C. he crossed the Rubicon River (at that time the frontier of Italy) with his legions and waged a bloody civil war against Pompeius. His victory made him the undisputed leader of Rome: he was consul for 5 years (48 B.C.) and dictator for 10 (46 B.C.).
Thanks to his authority and to the riches acquired, he began a series of legislative reforms and built many important monuments (Caesar’s Forum, Basilica Julia, Curia, Saepta Julia).
Much of his work was interrupted by a fatal conspiracy hesxded by Brutus and Cassius. Upon his death he was nominated god and venerated in a temple built in the Roman Forum on the site of his cremation.
Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius: 82-30 BC). Caesar’s grandson and lieutenant. He was the principal figure involved in the vendetta against Caesar’s assassins, Brutus and Cassius.
In 43 BC he constituted the second triumvirate with Lepidus and Octavian, which led to the division of the Roman territories, the Eastern regions being assigned to Mark Antony.
He fell in love with Cleopatra and married her giving her many Roman possessions and entering into open conflict with the Senate and Octavian. The civil war ended with the naval battle held in Actium in 31 BC: Mark Antony committed suicide in Alexandria in 30 BC.
Cleopatra (69-30 BC). Daughter of the king of Egypt, Tolomeus Auletes. Upon her father’s death, she was dispossessed by her husband and brother, Tolomeus Dionysius. I
n 46 BC she was once again placed on the throne thanks to Julius Caesar, from whom she had a son, Cesarean. Upon the dictator’s death she married Mark Antony, with the ambitious project of creating a powerful reign throughout the Eastern Mediterranean and fought directly with Octavian.
Following the defeat in Actium (31 BC) she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bit by a venomous serpent.
Agrippa (Marcus Vispanius Agrippa: 63-12 BC). A follower of Octavian, he led the principle civil war battles with great determination, among which the final clash in Actium against Mark Antony and Cleopatra (31 BC). He was Augustus’s right arm and son in law and was actively involved in the reorganization of the Empire.
Through the construction of many important monuments (aqueducts, Baths of Agrippa, Pantheon, etc.) he contributed to the erection of the new Imperial Rome.
Augustus (Caius lulius Caesar Octavianus Augustus: 63 BC-14 AD): Octavian, who was born in a plebeian family, was designated by his uncle Julius Caesar as son and heir. Therefore, he changed his name to Caius lulius Caesar Octavianus.
Upon the dictator’s death, together with Mark Antony and Aemilius Lepidus, he formed the second triumvirate, but following the final defeat of the Cesareans in Philippi (42 BC), the possibility of dividing the Roman territories into three parts vanished quickly.
Civil war broke out and Octavian and Mark Antony, who was already married to Cleopatra, became enemies. The victory at Actium in 31 BC allowed the young Caesar to conquer the absolute domain over Rome. This became official in 27 BC when the Senate conferred him the title of Augustus (inherited later also by all future Roman Emperors).
Holding all powers, he radically reorganized the Roman state with a series of legislative, administrative and social reforms thus initiating a lengthy period of peace identified as the new golden age.
During his rule, Rome, together with all the other cities of the empire, was involved in vast construction programs ranging from the restoration of the more ancient monuments to the building of new architectural complexes. In his will, Augustus could proudly claim to have found a city built of bricks and to have left behind him one built of marble.
Tiberius (Tiberius Claudius Nero: 42 EC-37 AD). The second Roman emperor, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla (Augustus’s second wife). He was an able military leader, but Augustus appointed him as his successor only following the premature death of the emperor’s closest blood relatives. His rule was filled with conspiracies and suspicion to the point that the emperor retired to his villa in Capri in 27 AD.
Caligula (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus: 12-41 AD). The son of Agrippina (Augustus’s niece) and of Germanicus.
He was nicknamed Caligula (from the term “caliga” meaning military shoe) since his childhood was spent in legionary camps. In 37 AD he became emperor and his rule was marked by absolutism and by dissolute behavior until he was killed in a conspiracy.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus: 10 BC-54 AD). Acclaimed emperor by the Praetorians upon Caligula’s death (41 AD), the elderly Claudius succeeded in restoring order despite the pressure of his wives, Messalina and Agrippina.
During his rule, Britannia was conquered and Mauritania, Thracia and Licia were added to the empire. Many public works were accomplished, most of which of public interst (the port of Claudius near Ostia, the Claudian aqueducts in Rome, etc.).
Nero (Nero Claudius Drus us Germanicus Caesar: 37-68 AD). The son of Agrippina Minor who was adopted by Claudius and became emperor in 54 AD Following an initial period of peaceful leadership, the young emperor changed political line and accentuated his tyrannical tendencies aimed towards an absolutist monarchy.
His name is linked with extravagance, but above all with the serious fire in 64 AD which destroyed most of Rome and to his attempt to blame the Christians for the fire.
His eccentric behavior and political line were directly reflected in the accomplishment of significant architectural programs such as the Domus Transitoria and the Domus Aurea, the lavish and grandiose palaces that Nero had built as his residences.
Following a series of conspiracies Nero committed suicide during a revolt headed by his own governors in 68 AD, thus marking the end of the first Roman imperial dynasty, the Julius Claudii.
Vespasian (Titus Flavins Vespasianus: 9-97 AD). Born in Sabina, Vespasian was supported by the legions appointed in the Orient and defeated Vitellius thus marking an end to a year of civil wars and becoming the first emperor of the Flavian dynasty.
Vespasian’s political line was aimed at replenishing the state treasury by favouring the middle classes and eliminating Nero’s absolutist trend.
The gradual elimination of the buildings of the Domus Aurea which was replaced by public monuments proved particularly significant. Some of these monuments included the Colosseum (whose building was begun by Vespasian) and the Temple of Peace, the fourth imperial forum.
Titus (Titus Flavius Vespasianus: 39-81 AD). Successor to his father Vespasian in 79 AD, Titus reigned for only two years during which took place the eruption of the Vesuvius which buried Pompeii and neighboring cities (79 AD) and a huge fire which destroyed many parts of Rome (80 AD).
Despite his short-lived rule which was marked by the continuation of the public building program begun by his father, his meekness and benevolence led him to be nicknamed the “delight of the human race”.
Domitian (Titus Flavius Domitianus: 51-96 AD). Following the premature death of Titus in 81 AD, his brother Domitian was made emperor, the last of the Flavian dynasty.
During his rule he energetically defended the empire’s northern borders and improved internal administrative organization, also completing construction programs begun by his father (among which the Colosseum) and building new important architectural complexes such as the imperial palace on the Palatine hill. Despite these positive aspects, repeated contrast with the senatorial aristocracy and his tendency towards an absolutist monarchy led to a period of terror which was ended by a conspiracy.
Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus: 53-117 AD). Following Domitian’s death, Nerva was nominated emperor (96-98 AD) who chose Trajan as his successor, a military leader of established experience loved both by the army and the Senate.
Born in Spain, Trajan was one of the greatest Roman emperors. During his rule (97-117 AD) the empire reached its maximum expansion with the conquest of Dacia (present Romania) and of vast Eastern territories (Arabia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Assyria).
The acquisition of new riches allowed Trajan to lead a social policy in favor of the poor and to accomplish a grandiose program of public works in Rome and in the provinces.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus: 76-138 AD). Hadrian became emperor in 117 AD. He was adopted by Trajan and was also Spanish.
The new emperor’s political orientation soon revealed to be completely different from the orientation of his predecessor. Aware of the difficulties that were to arise in defending such a vast territory, Hadrian abandoned the territories east of the Euphrates and gave special attention to the borders of the empire accomplishing, among other things, the Vallum in Britannia.
Hadrian stood out for his cultured nature and artistic sensibility he too was an architect and painter. During his rule which was principally peaceful, with the exception of the violent Judaic revolt, Hadrian traveled extensively throughout the provinces of the empire preferring to reside in his beautiful villa near Tivoli rather than in Rome.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius: 86-161 AD). Chosen by Hadrian as his heir, Antoninus became emperor in 138 AD, the first of the Antonine dynasty. His lengthy rule was a time of peace and prosperity troubled only by sporadic unrest in the provinces. Upon his death in 161 AD, he was succeeded (as established by Hadrian) by
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus: 121-180 AD) who ruled together with his adopted brother Lucius Verus who died in 169 AD.
In spite of his peaceful nature and his stoic character, Marcus Aurelius had to face lengthy wars in the Orient against the Parthians and sustain pressure by the Quads and the Marcomanns along the northern borders. Such battles are depicted on the Antonine Column. In addition to these difficulties, his rule was marked by a series of plagues and a difficult economic crisis which marked the beginning of the fall of the empire, accentuated by the poor rule of his son and heir, Commodus (Lucius Aurelius Commodus), emperor from 180 to 192 AD.
The bloody civil wars that broke out upon Commodus’ death ended with the victory of Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus: 144-211 AD), emperor in 193 AD, and the first of the Severian dynasty. Born in Leptis Magna in Tripolitania ( present day Libya) to a family of Italic origins, Septimius Severus reorganized the Roman empire and its defenses and guided a victorious expedition in the Orient which allowed the annexing of Mesopotamia. During his rule, also thanks to the marriage with Julia Domna (a noble Syrian), religion was influenced by oriental elements.
Upon Septimius Severus’s death in 211 AD, Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus: 186-217 AD), his first born son became emperor. Shortly after, he killed his brother Geta with whom he was to have shared the empire. During his rule, Caracalla promulgated the Constitutio Antoniniana which rendered the provincials equal to Roman citizens. During an expedition against the Parthians Caracalla was killed by one of his own soldiers.
Diocletian (Caius Aurelianus Valerius Diocletianus: 240-316 AD). Acclaimed emperor in 284 AD, Diocletian marked the end to a lengthy period of uncertainty and serious economic and military crisis.
In 286 AD he joined power with Maximianus, dividing the empire into two parts governed respectively by an emperor (named Augustus) and his deputy (defined as Caesar). This established a tetrarchy with the obvious intention of guaranteeing the succession to the throne.
In order to reorganize the state, the empire was divided into new territorial zones and the administration experienced fiscal and economic reforms. When Diocletian abdicated in 305 AD, withdrawing to his palace in Split, the tetrarchy was dissolved as a result of contrasts and personal ambitions of his successors thus leading to a new period of civil wars.
Appius Claudius Caecus. A Roman politician (IV-III BC), censor and consul, writer and orator, he owed his blindness (according to ancient sources) to the punishment of the gods inflicted on him for his religious reforms. He appointed the building of the aqueduct and street that are both named after him. He promoted electoral reforms in favor of the lower classes.
Apollodorus of Damascus. Trajan’s official architect (both civil and military) who accompanied him in the Dacian wars where he built an impressive bridge over the Danube depicted in Trajan’s Column. He also planned and designed the large Forum for the emperor which was to be the last of the imperial forums. The irreparable conflict with the emperor’s successor, Hadrian, caused the architect’s death.
Constantine. Son of the tetrarch Costantius Chlorus and Helena, he was emperor from 306 to 377 AD. He was acclaimed emperor by the troops in Britannia and this radically changed the mechanism of succession devised by Diocletian with the Tetrarchy. Those were years of wars and battles, particularly with Maxentius and Licinius.
In 313 he legalized Christianity and in 330 he moved the capital to Byzantium, renamed Constantinople.
A great emperor that maintained a difficult balance between late paganism and growing Christianity.
Do you want to know more about the history of Rome?
Check out our guidebook to Rome, with detailed history and Past & Present images of the Pantheon, the Colosseum, Trajan’s Market and all the greatest historical and archaeological sites of the eternal city.
If You Lived in Ancient Rome: What was it like to live in the capital city of the world's greatest empire? (World History).
Today, Rome is a city of 2.6 million people and the capital of Italy. But 1,900 years ago, Rome was the greatest superpower the world had ever known. It ruled an empire that stretched from Great Britain to Asia (see map, p. 17).
The first Romans were simple farmers. But over time, the Romans began to conquer other lands. By A.D. 117, Rome was at the height of its power. One out of every five people on Earth lived under Roman rule.
It was a time of peace and security known as Pax Romana (Roman Peace). A person could travel safely from Spain to the Middle East on roads built and guarded by Roman soldiers. As the Greek philosopher Aristides (arr-uh-STEYE-DEEZ) said admiringly of Rome, "The whole civilized world lays down the arms [weapons] which were its ancient burden . You have accustomed all areas to a settled and orderly way of life."
Never in human history had one group controlled as much land and as many countries for so long a time as the Romans did. From Spain to Romania, people still speak languages based on Latin. Roman art and culture influenced the Renaissance. And Roman systems of government and law serve as models for those of many modern nations, including the U.S.
The center of the Roman Empire was the city of Rome itself. Like big cities today, Rome had problems, such as traffic and crime. But also like most modern cities, Rome was full of new ideas, and something exciting was always happening. What was it like to live in Rome? It depended on who you were.
If you enjoy luxury, then you would probably have wanted the life of an aristocrat. Most aristocrats came from Rome's oldest and most powerful families. An aristocrat might have a beautiful marble villa with murals and running water. He might own hundreds of slaves to tend to his every need. He could host fancy dinner parties and serve exotic specialties like stuffed dormice (small rodents).
But an aristocrat's life wasn't all parties and stuffed dormice. Most aristocrats believed in a life of public service. They got up early each morning to meet with their clients. These were people of lower status who depended on them for favors--and the aristocrats could ask them for favors in return.
Aristocrats also had to spend time managing their estates--many became wealthy from the huge farms they owned. Pliny, an aristocrat and writer, said this about his busy days: "If you ask someone, 'What did you do today?' he'll tell you, 'I was at a . marriage, one fellow asked me to witness a will, another to stand by him in court, another to advise him in rendering verdicts. "
The life of an aristocrat was never a sure thing. He might have to risk his neck leading troops into battle. To stay popular with the people, he had to spend a lot of money putting on festivals and games and could go broke. If the emperor didn't like him, the aristocrat might be exiled or killed, and lose all the privileges he enjoyed.
"The public. longs eagerly for just two things--bread and circuses," wrote the satirist Juvenal. Ordinary Romans were desperate for relief from their cramped, miserable lives.
Commoners typically lived in small, stuffy apartments. Because these apartments often lacked kitchens, people had to buy food from take-out restaurants on the street. The streets were crowded with pedestrians by day and the clatter of supply carts by night. As the poet Martial wrote, "There's nowhere a poor m an can get any quiet in Rome."
Most of Rome's work was done by slaves, so there were few jobs for free Romans. To prevent rebellion, the emperors provided commoners with an allowance of free bread. They were also allowed to use the luxurious public baths.
People looked forward to holidays, when lavish entertainment was provided at public expense. There were so many holidays that Emperor Marcus Aurelius finally limited the number to 135 per year.
Most work fell to slaves, who had been captured in battle. They mined for gold. They taught the young. They did paperwork. Some wealthy Romans had hundreds of slaves.
The philosopher Seneca advised, "Treat your slaves with kindness." Many Romans followed that advice. Some even freed their slaves, making it possible for them to become citizens.
Other slave masters were harsh. Slaves who rebelled could be branded, or forced to wear iron collars. They could also be crucified.
At first, Rome drafted male, property-owning citizens to serve in its army. But as the empire grew, and soldiers had to fight farther from home, Rome turned to professional soldiers.
Army life was hard. Soldiers had to serve for 16 years and could not marry Still, military life attracted many men. They got to see new parts of the world. They had a chance to share in the treasure captured in war. And they served in the army of the greatest empire ever known.
Romans liked going to funny plays. They liked betting on horse races. But most of all, they loved cruel spectacles such as gladiator contests. Gladiators were specially trained slaves who were forced to fight each other--or wild animals--to the death.
Some gladiators became wildly popular, and were given nicknames like "darling of the people." If a gladiator won enough contests, he might be able to win his freedom.
But most gladiators were not that lucky. Thousands could be killed in a single gladiatorial contest.
In Rome's earliest days, wives were supposed to be modest and obedient. Girls were expected to marry early, at age 13 or 14. They were given to their husbands in arranged marriages, and a wife was under her husband's complete control. He could hit her or even put her to death. Her dowry (gift from the bride's family to the groom) became his to keep.
Later on, women could control their own property and will it as they wanted. If they divorced, their dowry was usually returned to them.
Roman women had more rights and freedom than in almost any other ancient land. Although they could not hold public office or vote, they could come and go as they pleased and often wielded great power behind the scenes.
Not all children were wanted. Sickly babies were often left on a hillside to die. Parents who did not want a baby girl might leave her to the same fate.
But children who were wanted were given a circular charm called a bulla to ward off evil spirits. Boys wore the bulla until they were 14 girls until they married.
Roman children liked to play ball and roll hoops with a stick. They also enjoyed board games similar to backgammon, chess, and checkers.
Boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 11 went to school if their parents could afford the fee. Most schools were held in marketplaces. Students learned reading, writing, and arithmetic. The lessons were often boring and repetitive. But students paid strict attention. If they didn't, the teacher might whip or beat them.
Some older boys went on to higher education. They read Greek and Latin poetry and studied geography, history, and mythology. Most importantly, they studied public speaking-an essential skill for succeeding in public life.
Lists with This Book
A Brief History of Rome's City Walls
Today, Rome‘s imposing city walls are often overlooked by visitors who are drawn to more recognizable tourist attractions. However, the story of the Eternal City’s defenses and boundaries reflects the fluctuating influence of the Roman Empire. Here is a brief history of Rome’s largest ancient monument.
The origins of the city walls can be traced all the way back to the 4th century BC, when the 6th king of Rome, Servius Tullius constructed the first defenses. The Servian walls were built from large blocks of volcanic tufa and were documented as being up to 10 meters high. A small part of these first boundaries can still be viewed near Termini station where a section of the wall remains to this day.
During the Republican times, as Rome’s strength and power increased, the walls were all but abandoned, and the Golden Age of emperors during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD saw peace spread throughout the empire, with barbarians posing no significant threat. For over 500 years the influence and extent of the Roman Empire rendered defenses unnecessary.
However, the continuing expansion and subsequent weakening of the Roman Empire saw the beginning of invasions throughout the lands and, in 270 AD, this vulnerability – paired with the need to redefine the ever-expanding boundaries of the city – prompted emperor Aurelian to rebuild the walls. The mura aureliane were far larger and stronger than the wall of Servius Tullius and enclosed all of the seven hills of Rome, as well as the Trastevere district south of the Tiber River. As the Roman army started to dwindle after long and tiring military campaigns, Aurelian decided – rather than use his much-needed soldiers to build the fortifications – he would take the unorthodox decision and utilize the citizens of Rome to build the walls.
The walls – which were 18 kilometers long, 3.5 meters thick and enclosed an area of 3500 acres – were built in just five years and were finished after the death of Aurelian. Incorporating pre-existing structures, such as the Pyramid of Cestius and the Claudian Aqueduct, cut down on labor and resources and hastened the completion of the project, with around one-sixth of the construction being composed of other buildings and monuments. The original structure was between 6-8 meters high, but later modifications by Maxentius doubled the height as the need for extra protection increased. There were also 381 square watchtowers located at 30-meter intervals and 18 gateways in and out of the city.
The walls survived the fall of the empire in Rome and remained the primary defense of the city for 16 centuries, until they were breached at Porta Pia on September 20, 1870, marking the beginning of the unification of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II.
Nowadays, the Aurelian Walls are the largest ancient monument in Rome and can be traced throughout the city. The grandiose gateways can also still be seen at Porta Maggiore and Porta Pinciana, with the towers at Porta San Sebastiano now housing the Museo delle Mura – a museum documenting the history of the walls, which also allows visitors to walk along one of the best-preserved segments. Elsewhere, parts of the wall have been seamlessly absorbed into the modern city and some sections have even adapted into homes and apartments. The mura aureliane are still also used as a demarcation of the historic center, even though the suburbs of the city have long since sprawled beyond the ancient walls.
Problems for Farmers
Roman farmers faced many of the problems which have historically affected farmers up until modern times including the unpredictability of weather, rainfall, and pests. Farmers also had to be wary of purchasing land too far away from a city or port because of war and land conflicts. As Rome was a vast empire that conquered many lands, it created enemies with individuals whose land had been taken. They would often lose their farms to the invaders who would take over and try to run the farms themselves.  Though Roman soldiers would often come to the aid of the farmers and try to regain the land, these fights often resulted in damaged or destroyed property. Land owners also faced problems with slave rebellions at times. “In addition to invasions by Carthaginians and Celtic tribes, slaves rebellions and civil wars which were repeatedly fought on Italian soil all contributed to the destruction of traditional agricultural holdings.  (pg. 4) Also, as Rome’s agriculture declined, people now judged others by their wealth rather than their character.”