March 4, 2013 Day 44 of the Fifth Year - History

March 4, 2013 Day 44 of the Fifth Year - History

President Barack Obama talks with Council of Economic Advisers Chair Alan Krueger following a Cabinet meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House, March 4, 2013.

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Fifth Sunday in Lent

Year A

March 26, 2023

Ezekiel 37:1-14
37:1 The hand of the LORD came upon me, and he brought me out by the spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of a valley it was full of bones.

37:2 He led me all around them there were very many lying in the valley, and they were very dry.

37:3 He said to me, "Mortal, can these bones live?" I answered, "O Lord GOD, you know."

37:4 Then he said to me, "Prophesy to these bones, and say to them: O dry bones, hear the word of the LORD.

37:5 Thus says the Lord GOD to these bones: I will cause breath to enter you, and you shall live.

37:6 I will lay sinews on you, and will cause flesh to come upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live and you shall know that I am the LORD."

37:7 So I prophesied as I had been commanded and as I prophesied, suddenly there was a noise, a rattling, and the bones came together, bone to its bone.

37:8 I looked, and there were sinews on them, and flesh had come upon them, and skin had covered them but there was no breath in them.

37:9 Then he said to me, "Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, mortal, and say to the breath: Thus says the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live."

37:10 I prophesied as he commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood on their feet, a vast multitude.

37:11 Then he said to me, "Mortal, these bones are the whole house of Israel. They say, 'Our bones are dried up, and our hope is lost we are cut off completely.'

37:12 Therefore prophesy, and say to them, Thus says the Lord GOD: I am going to open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people and I will bring you back to the land of Israel.

37:13 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people.

37:14 I will put my spirit within you, and you shall live, and I will place you on your own soil then you shall know that I, the LORD, have spoken and will act," says the LORD.

Psalm 130
130:1 Out of the depths I cry to you, O LORD.

130:2 Lord, hear my voice! Let your ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications!

130:3 If you, O LORD, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand?

130:4 But there is forgiveness with you, so that you may be revered.

130:5 I wait for the LORD, my soul waits, and in his word I hope

130:6 my soul waits for the Lord more than those who watch for the morning, more than those who watch for the morning.

130:7 O Israel, hope in the LORD! For with the LORD there is steadfast love, and with him is great power to redeem.

130:8 It is he who will redeem Israel from all its iniquities.

Romans 8:6-11
8:6 To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.

8:7 For this reason the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God it does not submit to God's law-- indeed it cannot,

8:8 and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

8:9 But you are not in the flesh you are in the Spirit, since the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.

8:10 But if Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness.

8:11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit that dwells in you.

John 11:1-45
11:1 Now a certain man was ill, Lazarus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha.

11:2 Mary was the one who anointed the Lord with perfume and wiped his feet with her hair her brother Lazarus was ill.

11:3 So the sisters sent a message to Jesus, "Lord, he whom you love is ill."

11:4 But when Jesus heard it, he said, "This illness does not lead to death rather it is for God's glory, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it."

11:5 Accordingly, though Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus,

11:6 after having heard that Lazarus was ill, he stayed two days longer in the place where he was.

11:7 Then after this he said to the disciples, "Let us go to Judea again."

11:8 The disciples said to him, "Rabbi, the Jews were just now trying to stone you, and are you going there again?"

11:9 Jesus answered, "Are there not twelve hours of daylight? Those who walk during the day do not stumble, because they see the light of this world.

11:10 But those who walk at night stumble, because the light is not in them."

11:11 After saying this, he told them, "Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I am going there to awaken him."

11:12 The disciples said to him, "Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will be all right."

11:13 Jesus, however, had been speaking about his death, but they thought that he was referring merely to sleep.

11:14 Then Jesus told them plainly, "Lazarus is dead.

11:15 For your sake I am glad I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him."

11:16 Thomas, who was called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples, "Let us also go, that we may die with him."

11:17 When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb four days.

11:18 Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, some two miles away,

11:19 and many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary to console them about their brother.

11:20 When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went and met him, while Mary stayed at home.

11:21 Martha said to Jesus, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.

11:22 But even now I know that God will give you whatever you ask of him."

11:23 Jesus said to her, "Your brother will rise again."

11:24 Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day."

11:25 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live,

11:26 and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?"

11:27 She said to him, "Yes, Lord, I believe that you are the Messiah, the Son of God, the one coming into the world."

11:28 When she had said this, she went back and called her sister Mary, and told her privately, "The Teacher is here and is calling for you."

11:29 And when she heard it, she got up quickly and went to him.

11:30 Now Jesus had not yet come to the village, but was still at the place where Martha had met him.

11:31 The Jews who were with her in the house, consoling her, saw Mary get up quickly and go out. They followed her because they thought that she was going to the tomb to weep there.

11:32 When Mary came where Jesus was and saw him, she knelt at his feet and said to him, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died."

11:33 When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who came with her also weeping, he was greatly disturbed in spirit and deeply moved.

11:34 He said, "Where have you laid him?" They said to him, "Lord, come and see."

11:36 So the Jews said, "See how he loved him!"

11:37 But some of them said, "Could not he who opened the eyes of the blind man have kept this man from dying?"

11:38 Then Jesus, again greatly disturbed, came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone was lying against it.

11:39 Jesus said, "Take away the stone." Martha, the sister of the dead man, said to him, "Lord, already there is a stench because he has been dead four days."

11:40 Jesus said to her, "Did I not tell you that if you believed, you would see the glory of God?"

11:41 So they took away the stone. And Jesus looked upward and said, "Father, I thank you for having heard me.

11:42 I knew that you always hear me, but I have said this for the sake of the crowd standing here, so that they may believe that you sent me."

11:43 When he had said this, he cried with a loud voice, "Lazarus, come out!"

11:44 The dead man came out, his hands and feet bound with strips of cloth, and his face wrapped in a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Unbind him, and let him go."

11:45 Many of the Jews therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what Jesus did, believed in him.

Scripture texts are from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Lections are from the Revised Common Lectionary Daily Readings. See the Terms of Use for copyright details.

The online Revised Common Lectionary is a project of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library, a division of the Jean and Alexander Heard Libraries.

Professional Tennis Career

Shortly after becoming the youngest British player to compete in the Davis Cup, Murray made his professional debut in April 2005. In 2006, with new coach Brad Gilbert, Murray beat top-ranked Roger Federer in Round 2 of the Cincinnati Masters tournament. Also that year, he defeated Andy Roddick en route to winning the SAP Open for his first ATP title. In 2007, Murray claimed a second straight SAP Open and also won the St. Petersburg Open to break into the Top 10 rankings.

Murray emerged in the tennis spotlight when he defeated Spanish sensation Rafael Nadal to reach the final of the 2008 U.S. Open, before losing to Federer. He ascended to No. 2 in the world in 2009, and finished runner-up at the Australian Open in both 2010 and 2011.

In 2012, Murray made it to the Wimbledon final for the first time with his semifinal win over Jo-Wilfried Tsonga. Murray&aposs victory made Scotland and the whole United Kingdom proud — he was the first tennis pro from Great Britain to reach the Wimbledon final since 1938. However, Murray lost in the final to Federer, who claimed his seventh Wimbledon win.

Murray avenged his Wimbledon loss at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, held in London, where he beat Federer to take his first Olympic gold medal. That September, he continued to burn up the courts with an impressive run through the U.S. Open field. Murray scored an impressive victory over Novak Djokovic in a tough three sets to clinch his first Grand Slam title, becoming the first player from Great Britain since 1977 — and the first British man since 1936 — to win a Grand Slam singles tournament.

After losing to Djokovic at the 2013 Australian Open, Murray made history that summer by defeating the Serbian player to claim the Wimbledon men&aposs singles championship. He was the first British male to win the tournament in 77 years and the second Scottish-born player to win Wimbledon since Harold Mahony in 1896.

Murray underwent back surgery in September 2013 following his loss in the quarterfinals of the U.S. Open. His performance was uneven for much of the 2014 season, though he made news by hiring former women&aposs champion Amelie Mauresmo to be his coach.

The Scottish player seemingly was back on track when he reached his fourth Australian Open final in early 2015. That March, he scored career victory No. 500 while competing at the Miami Open.

Murray followed with an impressive run at the 2015 French Open, battling back from a two-set deficit in the semifinals before succumbing to Djokovic. A few weeks later, he reached the semifinals of Wimbledon, but his hopes of advancing were cut short by theਊgeless Federer. Murray&aposs subsequent fourth-round loss at the U.S. Open not only thwarted his last chance for a major title in 2015, it snapped his streak of 18 consecutive appearances in a Grand Slam quarterfinal.

Murray began the 2016 season on a strong note, advancing to the Australian Open final before suffering another loss to his nemesis, Djokovic. However, he gained some revenge by defeating਍jokovic to claim the Italian Open in May and then sustained his high level of play through the French Open. With his semifinal win over defending champion Stan Wawrinka, Murray became the first British player to reach the French Open final since 1937. However, his bid to add another Slam title fell short when he wound up on the losing end ofਊ blistering Djokovic onslaught once again.

In July 2016, Murray advanced to the semifinals at Wimbledon after defeating Jo Wilfried-Tsonga. In the final, he upended Milos Raonic, the first Canadian man to make it to the Wimbledon final, 6-4, 7-6 (3), 7-6 (2). The victory was Murray&aposs third Grand Slam title.

The following month, Murray continued his sterling play by defeating Argentina&aposs Juan Martin del Potroਊt the Rio Games, making him the first male tennis player to successfully defend his Olympic singles title.


Nonpartisan Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican
President Presidency [ a ] Party Election Previous service Vice President
1 George Washington
(Lived: 67 years)
[ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ]
April 30, 1789 [ b ]

March 4, 1797
[ 13 ]
of the
Continental Army
John Adams [ c ] [ d ]
2 John Adams
(Lived: 90 years)
[ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Federalist 3
Vice President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson [ e ]
[ 3 Thomas Jefferson
(Lived: 83 years)
[ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Vice President of the United States
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805
George Clinton
March 4, 1805 – March 4, 1809
4 James Madison
(Lived: 85 years)
[ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ]
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
United States Secretary of State
George Clinton
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812 [ f ]
Office vacant
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813 [ g ]
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814 [ f ]
Office vacant
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817 [ g ]
5 James Monroe
(Lived: 73 years)
[ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
United States Secretary of State
Daniel D. Tompkins
6 John Quincy Adams
(Lived: 80 years)
[ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ]
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
United States Secretary of State
John C. Calhoun
7 Andrew Jackson
(Lived: 78 years)
[ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ]
March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Democratic 11
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee
John C. Calhoun
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832 [ h ]
Office vacant
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833 [ g ]
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837
8 Martin Van Buren
(Lived: 79 years)
[ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ]
March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Democratic 13
Vice President of the United States
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison
(Lived: 68 years)
[ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841 [ f ]
Whig 14
United States Minister to Colombia
John Tyler [ i ]
10 John Tyler [ j ]
(Lived: 71 years)
[ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ]
April 4, 1841

March 4, 1845
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant [ g ]
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845 [ k ]
11 James K. Polk
(Lived: 53 years)
[ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 15
Governor of Tennessee
George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor
(Lived: 65 years)
[ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850 [ f ]
Whig 16
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
Millard Fillmore [ i ]
13 Millard Fillmore
(Lived: 74 years)
[ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ]
July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
Whig 12th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant [ g ]
14 Franklin Pierce
(Lived: 64 years)
[ 50 ] [ 51 ] [ 52 ]
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Democratic 17
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
William R. King
March 4 – April 18, 1853 [ f ]
Office vacant
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857 [ g ]
15 James Buchanan
(Lived: 77 years)
[ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 18
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
John C. Breckinridge
16 Abraham Lincoln
(Lived: 56 years)
[ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ 58 ]
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865 [ f ]
(National Union) [ l ]
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865
Andrew Johnson
March 4 – April 15, 1865 [ i ]
17 Andrew Johnson
(Lived: 66 years)
[ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ]
April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
(National Union)
[ l ]
Unaffiliated [ m ]
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant [ g ]
18 Ulysses S. Grant
(Lived: 63 years)
[ 62 ] [ 63 ] [ 64 ]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Republican 21
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1873
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875 [ f ]
Office vacant
November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877 [ g ]
19 Rutherford B. Hayes
(Lived: 70 years)
[ 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 67 ]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 23
Governor of Ohio
(1868–72 & 1876–77)
William A. Wheeler
20 James A. Garfield
(Lived: 49 years)
[ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881 [ f ]
Republican 24
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th
Chester A. Arthur [ i ]
21 Chester A. Arthur
(Lived: 57 years)
[ 71 ] [ 72 ] [ 73 ]
September 19, 1881

March 4, 1885
Republican 20th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant [ g ]
22 Grover Cleveland
(Lived: 71 years)
[ 74 ] [ 75 ]
March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Democratic 25
Governor of New York
Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4 – November 25, 1885 [ f ]
Office vacant
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889 [ g ]
23 Benjamin Harrison
(Lived: 67 years)
[ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ]
March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Republican 26
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Indiana
Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland
(Lived: 71 years)
[ 74 ] [ 75 ]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 27
President of the United States
Adlai Stevenson
25 William McKinley
(Lived: 58 years)
[ 79 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ]
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
[ f ]
Republican 28
Governor of Ohio
Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899 [ f ]
Office vacant
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901 [ g ]
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4 – September 14, 1901 [ i ]
26 Theodore Roosevelt
(Lived: 60 years)
[ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ]
September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
Republican 25th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905 [ g ]
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1909
27 William Howard Taft
(Lived: 72 years)
[ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ]
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
Republican 31
United States Secretary of War
James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912 [ f ]
Office vacant
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913 [ g ]
28 Woodrow Wilson
(Lived: 67 years)
[ 88 ] [ 89 ] [ 90 ]
March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 32
Governor of New Jersey
Thomas R. Marshall
29 Warren G. Harding
(Lived: 57 years)
[ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923 [ f ]
Republican 34
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Ohio
Calvin Coolidge [ i ]
30 Calvin Coolidge
(Lived: 60 years)
[ 94 ] [ 95 ] [ 96 ]
August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
Republican 29th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925 [ g ]
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1929
31 Herbert Hoover
(Lived: 90 years)
[ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Republican 36
United States Secretary of Commerce
Charles Curtis
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Lived: 63 years)
[ 100 ] [ 101 ] [ 102 ]
March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945 [ f ]
Democratic 37
Governor of New York
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941 [ n ]
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945
Harry S. Truman
January 20 – April 12, 1945 [ i ]
33 Harry S. Truman
(Lived: 88 years)
[ 103 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ]
April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Democratic 34th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949 [ g ]
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949 – January 20, 1953
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower
(Lived: 78 years)
[ 106 ] [ 107 ] [ 108 ]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Republican 42
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
Richard Nixon
35 John F. Kennedy
(Lived: 46 years)
[ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ]
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963 [ f ]
Democratic 44
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Massachusetts
Lyndon B. Johnson [ i ]
36 Lyndon B. Johnson
(Lived: 64 years)
[ 112 ] [ 113 ]
November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
Democratic 37th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965 [ g ]
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969
37 Richard Nixon
(Lived: 81 years)
[ 114 ] [ 115 ] [ 116 ]
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974 [ h ]
Republican 46
Vice President of the United States
Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973 [ h ]
Office vacant
October 10 – December 6, 1973 [ g ]
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974 [ i ]
38 Gerald Ford
(Lived: 93 years)
[ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ]
August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
Republican 40th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
August 9 – December 19, 1974 [ g ]
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(96 years old)
[ 120 ] [ 121 ] [ 122 ]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Democratic 48
Governor of Georgia
Walter Mondale
40 Ronald Reagan
(Lived: 93 years)
[ 123 ] [ 124 ] [ 125 ]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 49
Governor of California
George H. W. Bush
41 George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(97 years old)
[ 126 ] [ 127 ] [ 128 ]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Republican 51
Vice President of the United States
Dan Quayle
42 Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(74 years old)
[ 129 ] [ 130 ] [ 131 ]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 52
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–81 & 1983–92)
Al Gore
43 George W. Bush
Born 1946
(75 years old)
[ 132 ] [ 133 ]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 54
Governor of Texas
Dick Cheney
44 Barack Obama
Born 1961
(59 years old)
[ 134 ] [ 135 ]
January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Democratic 56
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Illinois
Joe Biden

Presently, there are five living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1974–77) on December 26, 2006 (aged 93 years, 165 days). The most recently serving president to die was Ronald Reagan (served 1981–89) on June 5, 2004 (aged 93 years, 120 days).

Early life

Chávez grew up in Sabaneta, a small town in the southwestern plains of Venezuela. He was the second of six surviving children, all boys. His parents, both schoolteachers, did not have enough money to support all their children, so Hugo and his eldest brother, Adán, were raised in the city of Barinas by their grandmother, Rosa Inés Chávez, who instilled in Hugo a love of history and politics.

As a teenager, Chávez was heavily influenced by José Esteban Ruiz Guevara, a local historian, who introduced him to the teachings of Bolívar and Karl Marx, the German philosopher who was one of the fathers of communism, both of which had a profound impact on Chávez’s political philosophy. The presence of the National Liberation Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional FALN), the communist guerrilla insurgency that began fighting the Venezuelan government in the 1960s, also greatly affected Chávez. The FALN was supported by Cuban leader Fidel Castro, who would later become Chávez’s political muse.

In 1971 Chávez entered the Venezuelan Military Academy in Caracas, the national capital, not because he wanted to be a soldier but because he dreamed of becoming a professional baseball player, and the academy had good baseball coaches. Chávez planned to enroll there, excel at baseball, and then drop out. But while he was a skilled left-handed pitcher, he was not good enough to play professionally, so he continued his studies. He was a poor and unruly student, however, and ultimately graduated near the bottom of his class in 1975.

Chávez started his military career as a second lieutenant in the army. His first assignment was to capture the remaining leftist guerrillas. But as he pursued the insurgents, Chávez began to empathize with them, seeing them as peasants fighting for a better life. By 1977 Chávez was ready to leave the army in disgust when he discovered that his brother Adán was secretly working with the insurgents. Chávez arranged to meet Douglas Bravo—head of the Venezuelan Revolution Party (Partido de la Revolución Venezolana PRV), an underground movement, and a former leader of the FALN. “He inspired me and I realized I wouldn’t be leaving the army,” Chávez later said of Bravo. In 1982 Chávez and some fellow military officers secretly formed the Bolivarian Movement 200 to spread the insurgents’ revolutionary ideology within the military. Their goal was to take power in a civilian-military coup d’état.

March 4, 2013 Day 44 of the Fifth Year - History

The nation has seen a resurgence of anti-voter bills. These bills are an existential threat to our country and the promise of one person, one vote. They put forward oppressive measures and unjust barriers that make our fundamental right to vote increasingly difficult, particularly for Black and brown Americans.

The best tool to counter these denials of the freedom to vote is the For the People Act.

On June 9, activists, coalition partners, members of Congress, and more gathered at the foot of the Supreme Court to show their support for the For the People Act (S1), which is expected to receive a vote from the U.S. Senate later this week.

While there, they heard from some of the most influential leaders in the nation, including people like Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, Christian Nunes from the National Organization for Women, Senator and former presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren, and LWV’s own CEO, Virginia Kase-Solomón.

One way we’ve loved connecting with the people is through “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) posts on Reddit. These discussions are opportunities to cast aside DC vernacular and get right down to what really matters to people across the US: voting, making a difference in our daily lives, and West Wing (hey, we're still politics nerds).

As we enter our 101st year, it is time to look forward to what the next century of American democracy entails. To kick off this discussion, the League hosted a Congressional Conversation to talk about the next hundred years of democracy and envision a future where we can all work together to make sure our democracy remains strong and inclusive.

In the past year, The League signed on to numerous amicus briefs to defend the LGBTQ+ community from the wave of attacks on their rights. Many of these cases could set a precedent for discrimination against both LGBTQ+ and other marginized groups.

We're excited to highlight some of the accomplishments, advice, and experiences of our fellow Leaguers who identify as members of the AAPI community. As you'll see, each of these five people has had an enormous, positive impact on the League, our democracy, and the people around them.

A high-level summary of the League's 2020 Election Impact Report and how the League supported millions of people in a year filled with unprecedented challenges.

Women still lack equal rights in the U.S Constitution despite the significant legal and legislative advances that have been made in recent decades. It is not enough to treat the symptoms we must address the root cause of inequality by amending the Constitution and finally adding the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution.

With hundreds of restrictive voting proposals being introduced following the 2020 election, Brnovich could determine how we treat discriminatory laws in our judicial system.

On May 11, the For the People Act will enter a process called "markup." As we celebrate this progress and work towards passage, it is important to understand the markup process and potential outcomes.

The 1913 Women's Suffrage Parade

Less than a century ago, women in the United States were not guaranteed the right to vote. Many courageous groups worked hard at state and local levels throughout the end of the 19th century, making some small gains toward women's suffrage. In 1913, the first major national efforts were undertaken, beginning with a massive parade in Washington, D.C., on March 3—one day before the inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson. Organized by Alice Paul for the National American Woman Suffrage Association, the parade, calling for a constitutional amendment, featured 8,000 marchers, including nine bands, four mounted brigades, 20 floats, and an allegorical performance near the Treasury Building. Though the parade began late, it appeared to be off to a good start until the route along Pennsylvania Avenue became choked with tens of thousands of spectators—mostly men in town for the inauguration. Marchers were jostled and ridiculed by many in the crowd. Some were tripped, others assaulted. Policemen appeared to be either indifferent to the struggling paraders, or sympathetic to the mob. Before the day was out, one hundred marchers had been hospitalized. The mistreatment of the marchers amplified the event—and the cause—into a major news story and led to congressional hearings, where the D.C. superintendent of police lost his job. What began in 1913 took another seven years to make it through Congress. In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment secured the vote for women.

German actress Hedwig Reicher wears the costume of "Columbia" with other suffrage pageant participants standing in background in front of the Treasury Building in Washington, District of Columbia, on March 3, 1913. The performance was part of the larger Suffrage Parade of 1913. #

Suffragist Alice Paul, in a 1913 photograph. Paul was born in New Jersey, earned an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, then traveled to England and became friends with members of the women's suffrage movement there. She soon became very active herself, and, on returning to the United States soon after, joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Her first actions as part of NAWSA were to organize a massive parade in Washington, District of Columbia, to promote a new constitutional amendment that would guarantee women's right to vote in the U.S. #

Cover of the program for the 1913 women's suffrage procession. #

Elizabeth Freeman of the New York State Suffrage Association, with horse and carriage, on her way to join the March 3, 1913 suffrage march in Washington, District of Columbia, #

Mrs. E.R. Smith practicing speechmaking from a covered platform before a small crowd, a 'school for suffragette speakers' in Union Square. #

Suffragists on bus in New York City, part of the suffrage hike to Washington, District of Columbia, which joined the March 3, 1913 National American Woman Suffrage Association parade. #

March 3, 1913 photo at the Suffrage Parade, showing marchers (left to right) Mrs. Russell McLennan, Mrs. Althea Taft, Mrs. Lew Bridges, Mrs. Richard Coke Burleson, Alberta Hill and Miss F. Ragsdale. #

The hike lead by "General" Rosalie Jones from New York to Washington, District of Columbia, for the March 3, 1913 Suffrage parade. Photo taken in Newark, New Jersey on Broad Street, just north of West Kinney Street, on February 12, 1913. Rosalie Jones is walking behind the first car. #

Suffragists hand out flyers advertising the upcoming parade, 1913. #

Women suffrage hikers arriving in Washington, District of Columbia, from New York, 1913. #

At an open air meeting in Washington, District of Columbia, in March of 1913, calling upon Congress to pass the national woman suffrage amendment. This photograph shows Mrs. John Rogers, sister-in-law of former Secretary of War, and a member of the Advisory Council of the Congressional Union for Women Suffrage, speaking in front of old Corcoran Art Gallery. #

Lawyer Inez Milholland Boissevain prepares to lead the Suffrage Parade, on March 3, 1913. #

Women suffragists at the head of the parade, marching down Pennsylvania Avenue, with the U.S. Capitol in background, on March 3, 1913. #

Actress Margaret Vale Howe, a participant in the suffrage parade in Washington, District of Columbia, in March of 1913. #

Tableau presented by the Women's Suffrage Association, on the U.S. Treasury building steps, on March 3, 1913. #

Spectators crowd in on the passing Suffrage Parade on Pennsylvania Avenue, on March 3, 1913. #

Pennsylvania Avenue, completely choked with spectators during the Suffrage Parade, on March 3, 1913. #

"Home Makers," part of the Women's Suffrage Parade, on March 3, 1913. #

Crowds press in on the parade route in Washington, District of Columbia, on March 3, 1913. The stands and bunting were in place for the Inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson, scheduled for the following day. #

Part of the 1913 Suffrage Parade. The signs read "In The Home", and "Homemakers". #

The crowd converges on marchers, blocking the parade route during March 3, 1913, suffrage procession, in Washington, District of Columbia, #

This photo is captioned "Crowd breaking parade up at 9th St., March 3, 1913." #

The crowd surrounds and slows a Red Cross ambulance during the Women's suffrage procession, on March 3, 1913. Dozens of marchers were injured during the march, shoved and tripped by spectators. #

After the Parade: Mrs. John Boldt, Mrs. May Morgan, Miss Dock, and Miss Craft, suffrage hikers who took part in the suffrage hike from New York City to Washington, District of Columbia, as well as the parade itself, on March 3, 1913. #

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March 4, 2013 Day 44 of the Fifth Year - History

Registrations Now Opening
Some of our favorite races are happening again! And registration is open!
- Having postponed from April, the Cherry Blossom Ten Mile Run & 5K Run-Walk will take place on September 12, 2021 in Washington DC (and back to April next year). This is the iconic 10 mile run that starts on the National Mall in DC next to the Washington Monument and spends the entire ten mile run with the District of Columbia. More information here
- The Columbus Marathon & 1/2 Marathon is a fast, flat marathon/half-marathon that runs through the Ohio capital, through the parks, past the statehouse and The Ohio State University and more. The event canceelled in 2020 due to the pandemic and refunded all participants and offeres their no-risk pandemic policy where they will refund all participants again if the event can not happen due to COVID in 2021. More information here

New York City Marathon announces 2021 Field Size and Entry
The New York City Marathon has announced that the 50th Anniversary race will be held on November 7th with a field size of 33,000 runners. When the 2020 event was cancelled due to COVID restrictions, runners were provided with an option for a deferred entry into the 2021 event and due to the number of registrants who selected that option, the field will be predeominantly filled by those registrants.
Read the Press Release

Return from COVID! Gold Coast Marathon will be largest EVER marathon held in Australia
The pent up demand for running events is starting to show itself - and we, for one, say that's great! As an example, the Gold Coast Marathon has annuonced that nearly 5,000 runners have registered for the marathon event, which will make it the largest marathon ever in Australia. After a year of no events, it seems we're all eager to get out and compete and it's great that events are accommodating the demand.

Boston Marathon Announces Qualifier Acceptances for October 2021 Field
In a March press release, the BAA, organizers of the Boston Marathon, announced the reduced field size of 20,000 (about 30% fewer than usual) for the rescheduled 2021 Boston Marathon. On May 4th, the BAA has announced that they have accepted 14,609 (out of 23,824 applicants) qualified runners as part of that field. As has been their practice in recent years, the BAA has accepted applications from runners who have surpassed a published qualifying time, but then accepted runners in order by how much their time surpasses the qualifying time until the field is filled. For 2021, the requirement to be accepted is that an applicant in the qualifier field must have run 7minutes 47seconds faster than the published qualifying time - the toughest standard and lowest yield (61.3%) of all time. That can be compared to the selection statistics for the 2020 Boston Marathon (which was ultimately not held): 1minute 39seconds faster than qualifying standards was required for acceptance and 24,127 of 27,237 applicants (88.5%) were accepted.
Read the Press Release

USA and Canada Results

Grandma's Marathon - Jun 19 - Duluth, MN
Milton Rotich, 35 of Albuquerque, was the winner of the 2021 Grandma's Marathon in 2:13:04. Cj Albertson, 27 of Fresno CA, was second in 2:14:29. Joseph Whelan, 30 of Webster NY, was third in 2:16:25.
In the women's race, Dakotah Lindwurm, 26 of Eagan MN, was first in 2:29:04. Katja Goldring, 30 of Flagstaff AZ, was second in 2:31:30. Tristin Van Ord, 26 of Blowing Rock NC, was third in 2:32:55.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Mayor's Marathon - Jun 19 - Anchorage, AK
Benjamin Kopecky, of Saint Louis MO, was the winner of the 2021 Mayor's Marathon in 2:40:03. Christopher Osiensky, of Pocatello ID, was second in 2:40:53. Nic Aubert, of Los Angeles CA, was third in 2:46:29.
In the women's race, Megan Youngren, of Soldotna AK, was first in 3:07:43. Christine Meyer, of Brooklyn NY, was second in 3:11:41. Kendra Paskvan, of Anchorage AK, was third in 3:18:30.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Leadville Trail Marathon - Jun 19 - Leadville, CO
Noah Williams, 26 of Leadville CO, was the winner of the 2021 Leadville Trail Marathon in 3:35:01. Scott Spillman, 34 of Denver CO, was second in 3:41:34. Timmy Parr, 39 of Gunnison CO, was third in 3:48:45.
In the women's race, Brittany Charboneau, 33 of Denver CO, was first in 4:14:52. Lauren Puretz, 38 of Colorado Springs CO, was second in 4:27:18. Emily Fischer, 31 of Colorado Springs CO, was third in 4:41:20.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Charlevoix Marathon - Jun 19 - Charlevoix, MI
Zachary Ripley was the winner of the 2021 Charlevoix Marathon in 2:25:00. Gregory Ingle was second in 2:37:47. Dan Kasprowicz was third in 2:38:28.
In the women's race, Kelly Travis was first in 2:55:29. Jane Rotonda was second in 2:57:05. Jennifer Lloyd was third in 2:59:06.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Estes Park Marathon - Jun 20 - Estes Park, CO
Sam Beal, of Estes Park, was the winner of the 2021 Estes Park Marathon in 2:47:42. Rob Walters, of Chicago, was second in 3:05:23. Jeremy Duncan, of Basalt, was third in 3:11:16.
In the women's race, Megan Longinotti, of Durango, was first in 3:19:46. Marissa Ward, of Strongsville, was second in 3:31:24. Karly Wilson, of Arvada, was third in 3:47:33.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

New England Series - ME - Jun 16 - Sanford, ME
Richard Mountfield, 53 of Cambridge MA, was the winner of the 2021 New England Series - ME in 4:03:14. Michael Pawlak, 49 of Racine WI, was second in 4:15:52. Matt Sturgell, 52 of Germantwn Hls IL, was third in 4:30:41.
In the women's race, Rachel Donovan, 21 of Clemson SC, was first in 4:26:54. Lisa Atencio, 55 of Arvada CO, was second in 5:11:23. Patricia Brown, 51 of Peachtree Cor GA, was third in 5:21:07.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

The Dam Marathon & Half Marathon - Jun 19 - Oakridge, OR
Results and Writeup as we get them in.

San Juan Island Marathon - Jun 20 - Friday Harbor, WA
Dave Niday, 30 of Waconia MN, was the winner of the 2021 San Juan Island Marathon in 3:48:43. James Kinch, 25 of Lacey WA, was second in 3:53:12. Joseph Mcginness, 31 of Lacey WA, was third in 3:55:25.
In the women's race, Ariel Jensen, 26 of, was first in 3:44:30. Elisa Phillips, 37 of Tucson AZ, was second in 3:59:56. Sapphire Chen, 56 of Beaverton OR, was third in 4:40:37.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Running With The Devil Marathon - Jun 19 - Las Vegas, NV
Devin Prado, 26 of Las Vegas NV, was the winner of the 2021 Running With The Devil Marathon in 4:02:52. Ricky Deane, 50 of Elmhurst IL, was second in 4:03:21. Mark Flores, 52 of San Dimas CA, was third in 4:14:03.
In the women's race, Julie Bertoia, 44 of Henderson NV, was first in 4:19:51. Ashley Gray, 27 of Murrieta CA, was second in 4:57:05. Kelley Heffner, 31 of Clarksburg MD, was third in 5:08:59.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Two Hearted Trail Marathon - Jun 19 - Paradise, MI
Results and Writeup as we get them in.

International Results

The Hampshire Hoppit Marathon - Jun 20 - Kingsclere, United Kingdom
Will Hudson was the winner of the 2021 The Hampshire Hoppit Marathon in 3:02:54. Alastair Bridgman was second in 3:06:41. Alex Hamilton was third in 3:06:55.
In the women's race, Rachel Owen was first in 3:29:01. Emily Lillywhite Iredale was second in 3:30:55. Philomel Bennett was third in 3:39:30.
Complete Searchable Results Here!

Aabenraa Mountain Marathon - Jun 19 - Aabenraa, Denmark
Jesper Meins of Denmark was the winner of the 2021 Aabenraa Mountain Marathon in 2:54:58. Brian Arreborg Hansen of Denmark was second in 2:59:49. Mike Pedersen of Denmark was third in 3:22:06.
In the women's race, Begitte Hansen of Denmark was first in 3:09:48. Anne Sofie Kornerup of Denmark was second in 4:03:53. Janne Sonnichsen Lykou of Denmark was third in 4:20:41.

International Peace Marathon in Rwanda - Jun 20 - Kigali, Rwanda
Derseh Kindie, of Ethiopia, was the winner of the 2021 International Peace Marathon in Rwanda in 2:23:29. Afewerki Hidru Berhane, of Eritrea, was second in 2:23:31. Merhawi Kesete, of Eritrea, was third in 2:23:33.
In the women's race, Cheruto Isgah, of Kenya, was first in 2:51:43. Gebre Meseret, of Ethiopia, was second in 2:54:21. Lemlem Teweldebrhan, of Eritrea, was third in 2:57:10.

Midnight Sun Marathon - Jun 19 - Tromso, Norway
Frew Zenebe Brkineh, of Ethiopia, was the winner of the 2021 Midnight Sun Marathon in 2:24:35. Sebastian Conrad Hakansson of Norway was second in 2:26:49. David Murphy, of USA, was third in 2:28:51.
In the women's race, Trude Helen Thomassen of Norway was first in 3:03:06. Karen Marie Hakonsen of Norway was second in 3:05:29. Gina Didriksen of Norway was third in 3:22:42.

Summer Night Marathon - Jun 19 - Forssa, Finland
Writeup as we get them in.

Marathon Project Produces Impressive Results
In a high point for a low year, The Marathon Project created an elite race for North Americans held on Indian land on a loop course in Chandler AZ. With few other options, many of the top runners in the USA participated and the results were stellar, including many personal bests. Among the highlights: A personal best for Sarah Hall who ran 2:20:32, the second fastest time ever run by an American woman (albeit with male pacemakers). Keira D'Amato also produced a huge personal best 2:22:56 finish as she finished second - just weeks after setting a USA 10Mile record. Among non-Americans, Natasha Wodak of Canda finished fifth woman in a personal best of 2:26:19 which likely means she'll make the Canadian Olympic team. Among the men, seven men ran sub-2:10, an amazing feat where the top prize was just $5,000 (but the big prize was having a race to be able to run!).
See full results here!

Virgin Money London Marathon - Oct 4 - London, United Kingdom
The postponed London Marathon took place on October 4, 2020 as an elite-only race.
The men's race was slated to be a run-off between the two fastest men in the world: Eliud Kipchoge and Kenenisa Bekele. But the race did not play out as expected with Bekele dropping from the field two days before race day and Kipchoge having a terrible day with hip issues. Instead, three men approached the finish stretch together with Shura Kitata taking the win in 2:05:41 (the slowest winning time at London in seven years). Vincent Kipchumba finished just behind in 2:05:42 and Sisay Lemma was third in 2:05:45.
In the women's race, Brigid Kosgei defended her London Marathon title, easily winning in 2:18:58. Sara Hall ran a personal best as she ran down the competition to take the runner-up spot in a personal best 2:22:01. Ruth Chepngetich, the 2019 World Champion, was third in 2:22:05.
Complete Searchable Results Here!
Read the Post-Race Men's Race Press Release
Elite Women talk about their race
Elite Men talk about their race
Shura Kitata talks about his Race

2020 Olympics - Postponed to similar dates for 2021
The 2020 Olympics, scheduled to be held in Tokyo from July 24, 2020 to August 9, 2020 will now be held in Tokyo from July 23 to August 8, 2021. The new dates, as with the old dates, comprise an opening day of Friday and final day of Sunday. These new dates overlap with the scheduled World Athletics Championships which were to be held in Eugene, Oregon from August 6 to August 15, 2021 so the World Championships will now need to be rescheduled. The IOC Press Release for the new dates for the Olympics state: "The same heat mitigation measures as planned for 2020 will be implemented," which seem to indicate that the Marathon and Race Walking events will still be planned to take place in Sapporo rather than Tokyo.
Read the Press Release

2020 USA Olympic Marathon Trials Marathon!
The USA's Marathon Team for the 2020 Olympics is now set! In a great Olympic Trials Marathon, on a hilly and windy course, three men and three women distinguished themselves above all others to make the Olympic team. Galen Rupp again proved himself to be one of the best American Marathoners ever by winning his second consecutive Marathon Trials race with his 2:09:20 run. Jacob Riley, back from injuries, ran a personal best 2:10:02 to finish runner-up. Abdi Abdirahman, at 43 years of age, made his fifth OLympics team and set a USA Masters record with a 2:10:03 finish.
The women: Aliphine Tuliamuk showed bravery to bust apart the pack and push the pace to win in 2:27:23. Molly Seidel stuck with Tuliamuk and finished second in 2:27:31 - an amazing feat considering this was her debut marathon and she was competing against many many seasoned marathoners. Sally Kipyego, newly an American, finished third in 2:28:52.
Post-Race Writeups:
- Men's Race
- Women's Race
Also, read our "As It Happens" real-time notes from the race - the best available mile-by-mile recap anywhere.
And Still Up - All of the Stats and Pre-Race Information:
As fans of American distance running, our favorite day of every four years is the Olympic Trials Marathon. This event showcases the best of the best of the current crop of America's road runners. Wow.
And, to get the best information - for anything marathoning, but especially for this event - you must come to
On this website:
- Coverage Home Page
- Information about qualifying and the qualifiers
(on those pages all qualifiers showing who has declared and registered, as well as lists ordered by race quality, qualifying races, runner homes and runner colleges!
- Men's Start Lists
- Women's Start Lists
- Men's Preview
- Women's Preview
- Mens's Trials History (all races since 1968)
- Women's Trials History (all races since 1984)

What's Here
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We're here to be the one-stop source for everything marathoning. It's all here - just look around. And, we'll be adding more and more each day!

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The history of British winters

Written by D.Fauvell and I.Simpson this page cover's many winters from the 17th Century right up to the current day. It includes the 'little ice age' period which many people yearn to see again!

1616: Hot summer with drought similar to that of 1612

1620-21: Frost fair held on the Thames

1635: Severe winter, Thames froze over

1636: Severe drought, rainless for months (reputedly)

1638: Not linked so much to winter, but tornadoes were reported in the South West.

1644: Late January snowfall, lasted 8 days

1648: Interestingly was very wet, and the summer was described as "worse than some of the past winters" ie. It was cool and wet!

1648-49: Thames froze over

1657-58: Beginning a period of long lying snow, lasting from December through until March!

1658: A 'wild stormy night' when roofs were blown down, as well as Chimneys. Noted as the night Oliver Cromwell died.

1662-67: 3 of 5 winters in this period were described as cold, with severe frosts. Skating was launched on the Thames, for the pleasure of King Charles 2nd.

1664-65: Reputedly the coldest day ever in England, with a severe frost lasting about 2 months.

1665: In November, a deep depression was recorded, possibly the lowest recorded in London, of 931 millibars! Still stands today?

1666-67: Thames covered in ice

1669: A cold year in regards to the milder ones proceeding it. Thames froze over, again.

1674: March snowfall, lasted for 13 days, described as ' The thirteen drifty days' . Most of the sheep perished, unfortunatley.

1676: June exceptionally hot (notice the correlation with 1976! lol)

1677: Thames froze, again! Becoming a regular occurance.

1680-81: Winter was severe, with lots of Easterly winds. The Easterlies brought dry air.

1683-84: Now when people think of 'The Big One' in terms of winters, they think of 1947,1963 etc. But there was one winter that easily surpassed both! This winter! Mid December saw the 'great frost' start in the UK and Central Europe. The Thames was frozen all the way up to London Bridge by early January 1684. The frost was claimed to be the longest on record, and probably was. It lasted kept the Thames frozen for 2 months, it froze as deep as 11 inches. Near Manchester, the ground had frozen to 27 inches, and in Somerset, to an astonishing 4 feet! This winter was the coldest in the CET series, at -1.2! (1739-40 was -0.4) This winter was described by R.D. Blackmore, in his book 'Lorna Doone'. In mid February there was a thaw.

1688-89: Long and severe frosts, Thames froze over.

1690-99: 6 out of 10 of the winters in this period were described as severe, judging by their CET. Meaning their average temperatures for December, January, February and March were below 3c. 1694-95 heralded deep snow, with falls of continual snow affecting London. This lasted for 5 weeks, along with the freezing of the Thames. This heavy snow and frost theme, continued for a good long while. In fact 1695 is believed to have been one of the coldest years ever recorded, the severe snowy winter ended around mid April, at which time arctic sea ice had extended around the entire coast of Iceland! 1695-96 saw -23c (?) in the UK. A severe winter. The autumn of 1697 was very cold, with snow persisting, and ice forming. The winter of 1697-98 was severe, with a CET of about 1c. Snow and ice built up. Ice on coasts built up to 8 inches in parts. Spring very cold. Generally the late 1600s were very cold, and people probably were affected very badly by this. The cold probably brought famine to the poor, as livestock perished, and crops failed. And without central heating, it must have been unbearable in parts. The 'Little Ice Age' lived up to its name. The final few years weren't as bad, but harvests were still ruined generally as wet weather took over from the cold.

The 1600s were generally a period of harsh severe winters, and cool/wet springs/summers. At points the Thames was frozen for months, although I think it would have been wider then (?) and shallower (?) so easier to freeze when the temperatures were right.

New century, similar pattern..

November 1703: A 'great storm' in England, although thought to be the worst in the record books, I don&#8217t wish to pursue any information in regards to it, as no snowfall came of it!

1708: The coldest Spring, Summer, and Autumn for 47 years, other than 1698! (see part 2)

1708-09: Severe winter, the frost lasted for over 3 months! Temperatures plummeted to -18c. Thames froze in London, once again! Severe winter by CET values (1.2c).

1715-16: Thames frozen for 2 months, frost fair took place. Ice on Thames in London lifted around 15 feet by a flood tide but remained intact! The ice must have been astonishingly strong.

1728-29: Severe winter, frost and snow remained for at least a month. Very cool spring.

1731: Very dry, after a 'great frost' at the start of the year. Very cold first period of the year, with much snow and ice. London recorded -18c. A warm summer. This year resembles 2003 quite closely, very dry with a minimum of -18 recorded in London (-18c recorded in Aviemore January this year? (2003)) followed by a warm summer (ours has been hot 100F reached and breached) But the similarities are evident, especially on the side of drought.

1739: October, Easterly wind set in heralding frosts. The beginning of another 'Big One!'.

1739-40: Severe winter, one of the worst. May have been worse than that of 1715 (?). Late December saw a severely strong Easterly gale set up, brining very cold air over the UK. Ice formed on the Thames, once again. Streets were blocked up with ice and snow, which made travelling hazardous. The Thames remained frozen over for about 8 weeks (?). Some reports said this winter was the most severe on record, with temperatures falling to -24c in early January (1995 beat this and holds the record for the coldest minima in the UK ever). The Easterly gale persisted, with snow and frost becoming an increasing hazard to all. Northerlies also started up, very strong in places, with again snow and ice. This winter can be noted as one of the most severe of all time (since records began).

1740: Coldest October on record, with ice already formed in parts. 1740 was very cold as a whole, the spring was also cold.

1742: Ice in the Thames, very cold once again.

1748: Severe frost in November in London and the South.

1749: Severe frost in November, again in the South and London.

1762: Snow fell early on (late October) in London and the South.

1762-63: Intense frost and strong Easterlies prevailed from Christmas day right through January in London and the South.

1765-66: Severe winter, cold persisted from early on (November) until February.

Early 1767 and 1768: Started with frosts comparable to that of 1739-40.

1768: January saw severe frost and deep snow.

1770: Late snowfall (May) in South.

1775-76: Severe winter. From early January to early February much of the UK and Europe was very cold. The Thames froze. Stormy February followed.

1779-80: Severe winter. Coldest winter in the series in Edinburgh (series from 1764-65 to 1962-63)

1783-86: Two succesive severe winters. The Thames froze completely in both, almost continuous frost lasted from early to late winter. Snow remained for as long as 4 months. Attributed to an Icelandic volcanic eruption, although details regarding this are slim. Heavy snow also fell early on in both years, with snow falling as early as October. 1784 was a cold year generally. Sleet was recorded near the coast of the Moray Firth in August! Heavy snow fell in the South in October. The year was ranked in the top 10 coldest years recorded in the CET series. 1785 was very dry and cold, with again early snow in October. 1786 had a very dry summer, and was persistantly cold from September to November.

1788-89: Long frost lasting from late November, until early January. The Thames froze completely, and a 'frsot Fair' was held on it.

1794-95: Exceptionally severe winter. The cold beginning on Christmas Eve, and lasting until late March, with a few temporary breaks. January was particularly cold, with a CET of 0.8c. It was the coldest January in the instrumental era, beginning 1659. The Severn and The Thames froze, and 'Frost Fairs' started up again. An extremely bitter temperature of -21c was recorded in London, on January 25th. In early February, there was a rapid, but only temporary thaw. Flooding ensued. The severe cold returned slightly later (mid February) and continued well into March. There were many recorded snow events. The winter was anticyclonic (High Pressure dominated) and Easterlies were dominant throughout. Up in Scotland, it was the seventh coldest at Edinburgh, in the series 1764/65 1962/63. (coldest 1779/80). The winter was memorable for all.

1796: December was severe, with frosts in London and elsewhere. -21c was recorded in London, as was -19c.

1798-99: Severe frost lasted from late December to early January in London and the South. Heavy snowfalls were recorded, especially in North Eastern Scotland, where transport was dislocated for quite some time.

1799: Spring was very cold, and was recorded as being very cold in the CET series.

One thing I have noticed about the 1700s, is their Easterly dominated winters. Last winter, we saw that in a smaller scale here in the UK. Most records came from London at the time, and so widespread detail wasn&#8217t available. If it was, I think rural locations in Central and Northern parts, may have seen very cold minimums and maximums, possible into the mid 20s below, like that of 1995. A set up like that of 1794-95 could happen again soon if High Pressure establishes itself in Greenland and Scandinavia. A thing to watch in the coming winter, although a winter on the same scale as 1794-95 is very unlikely, as it was extreme, even for the 'Little Ice Age'!

New century! Some big winters this century

1811: A late start for severe winters in the 1800s, but January of 1811 saw the Thames freeze, once again!

1812: A year later, and March this time. 1ft of snow fell in Scotland, around the city of Edinburgh (I think Edinburgh and London had the most weather records of anywhere in the UK due to their frequency in data being recorded) followed by drifting in a gale force North Easterly!

1813-1814: Not many of the 1800s winters had I heard of before about 3-4 years ago, but this one I had, due to its severe cold. One of the 4/5 coldest winters in the CET series. Colder winters included: 1962-63 (see part 1739-40 (see part 3) and the coldest, 1683-84 (see part 2) 'Lorna Doone'. A memorable winter overall. January to March was very cold. January had a CET of -2.9 (third coldest since records began?) The next comparible year in terms of cold weather being 1962-63. The tidal stretch of the Thames froze for the last time, the old London Bridge was removed, and other factors helped increase the rivers flow, preventing ice forming again. If it was the same now as it was back then, we would still see it being frozen. A frost fair was held on the Thames, possibly the last 'great' one. The frost began in late December, approaching the new year. Thick fog came with the frost, as was common in London at the time. Probably one of the snowiest winters in the last 300 years, although 1947 was likely to have been snowier. Heavy snow fell for 2-3 days in early January, before a temporary thaw of 1 day. Then the frost just returned, possibly more severe than before due to the snow cover, and persisted until early February. A thaw followed later, and ice floating down the river damaged ships. Fog was also a hazard and took a long time to clear, lasting from late December to early January, an unusual occurrence. Visibility was down to 20 yards at times! Traffic hardly moved, and travelling became very dangerous. The fog cleared following a Northerly gale in early January, when heavy snow fell. A severe and very snowy winter.

1816: Known as the year without summer, snow fell very late on, and the summer never recovered. The winter proceeding it was severe. A volcanic eruption (Tambora: East Indies) disrupted wind patterns and temperatures greatly, affecting the track of depressions, which tracked further South than usual, and making the UK very cold an wet for the summer and beyond. Scotland was drier though, an obvious sign that the depressions changed track. In September the Thames had frozen! Snow drifts remained on hills until late July!

1819-20: Severe winter. -23c was recorded at Tunbridge Wells, although no details of exposure are evident.

1821: Late May saw snow in London, probably the latest snowfall there until 2nd June 1975.

1822-23: Severe winter, ice on the Thames by late December. February 8th saw a great snowstorm in Northern England. People had to tunnel through the snow.

1825: Snow fell in October in London. A very windy time, with gales doing damage.

1829: A cold year. Continuous frost throughout January. The summer was wet, and quite cold. Over an inch of snow fell in early October, although where isn't certain, most likely to be London. 6 inches fell in London and the South in late November. Northerly and Easterly gales damaged ships, and lost some.

1829-30: Severe winter. Continuous frost from the 23rd to 31st December, 12th to 19th January, and 31st January to 6th February. Ice on the Thames from late December to late January. Some places completely blocked. 25th December 1830 was cold, with -12c recorded in Greenwich.

1834-38: Snowy winter in Scotland. Snow lasted well into March, with 8 or 9 feet of snow being reported in parts! This trend continued for a number of winters, with a lot of snow in Scotland. From early winter, December, to late winter, March, snow was a problem. There were considerable accumulations, becoming common throughout the winter. Snow fell widely, but mostly in the North of Scotland, where accumulations were very large, right through until April. 1836-37 was another snowy winter in the series, with heavy falls of snow in January. Blizzards began in late February, and lasted into March. Transport was severely disrupted, and harvest damaged by harsh frosts. This series of winters was severe, and notable, especially for Scotland, but very bad elsewhere also. The most notable of the snowstorms being:

October 1836, snow reached depths of 5-6 inches, very unusual.

25th December 1836, roads impassable, snow depths reached a staggering 5-15 feet in many places, and most astonishingly, drifts of 20-50 feet.

1837-38: Murphys winter. Patrick Murphy won fame and a small fortune from the sale of an almanac in which he predicted the severe frost of January 1838 (a 2 month frosty period set in with a light SE wind & fine day with hoar frost on the 7th (or 8th) January) (quoted from a web-page). 20th January saw temperatures as low as -16c in London, accepted as the coldest recorded here of the 19th century. -20 recorded at Blackheath, and -26c at Beckenham, Kent. The temperature at Greenwich was -11c at midday. The Thames froze over.

1838: Snow showers on 13th October, possibly in London and the South.

1849: April, great snowstorm hit Southern England. Coaches buried in drifts. Notably late snowfall.

1851-53: The first of these winters saw heavy snowfall in Scotland. The North of Scotland saw the first of the heavy snow. The railway from Aberdeen to the South was badly affected, but was kept open. Blizzards caused deaths. The storms stopped near the end of January. 1852-53 was severe as well, particularly severe in February though. Low temperatures and heavy snowfall lasted well into March for most.

Thanks to the Bonacina snowfall catalogue, for its information! Excellent resource. Now to continue.

1875-76: Amazingly snowy winter for the UK, especially the South East early on, the first week of December dumped 1-2ft in some places, worst in the South East. March of this month had many snowstorms, and April recorded nearly 2ft of snow in the Midlands! Snowfall was recorded (on a notable scale), in November, December, January, February, March, April, and May! I would regard this winter as very snowy.

1878-79: Another snowy one! In the north, snow cover remained for 3 months! Snow recorded in November, December, January, February, March and April! Very snowy

1880-81: Now I didn't add this one for the huge volume of snow it recorded (it didn't, although it was still snowy!) I added this, because of the early snowfall! 6 inches of snow fell in October in London! In January, 3ft of level snow fell from East Devon to the Isle of Wight! There were 10ft drifts in Evesham, and Dartmoor recorded 4ft. Very Snowy

Interestingly, 1881-82 wasn't snowy at all!

1885-1886: Snow fell in October, November, December, January, February, March, April and May! London recorded 1ft of snow in7 hours in early January. In the North a blizzard dumped 2ft of snow widely, and in May the North of England got a heavy fall. Very Snowy

1878-80: 2ft of Snow fell in Oxford in October! A ferocious blizzard raged in the North East in March. 10th June saw snow in Scotland, of 6 inches! 11th July reportedly saw snow in the South and East, Keswick saw snow above 1000ft.

From 1895-99 the UK had 4 consecutive years of little/average snowfall, of which the only noteworthy fall was of 1ft in the Eastern spine of the country. 1899-00 saw general snow of 1ft, 2ft in places. The following year wasn't exceptional either, although 5-7ft of snow was recorded in North Wales and Northern England. Both years were snowy.

New century, some very famous winters in here.

From 1901-07, snowfalls were only little /average again, passing more than a resemblance to the 90s. Some heavy falls were recorded though.

1907-08: Norfolk and Suffolk recorded 1ft of snow in 23rd April, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, and Hertfordshire recorded 1-2ft, some 2 days later. 1908-09: Practically the same as the proceeding year, both snowy, with 08-09 recording up to 2ft of snow in South East England in March, and beforehand, a great spell of snow in February, affecting practically everywhere!

As a whole, the mid 1800s where very snowy (the little ice age ending), but the nearer the end of the century came, the smaller the snowfalls grew, until the early 1900s, they were little or average, emulating the 90's. It looks as though the ends and beginnings of centuries record little snow, whereas the middle two quarters receive lots. The pattern continues. 1909-15 recorded little or average snowfalls, nothing really to write home about, other than a few falls of up to 2.5 ft, but no real consistency in the cold/snowy periods. London came away with practically no snowfall in 1912-13, whereas Northern Britain was quite snowy. This decade was far from good for snow lovers! I bet they started talking of no more snow for the UK again, as we are doing now. Shows how wrong they were.
The snow drought ended abruptly in 1916, with enormous falls of snow in the mountains, 10ft in the Pennines, Black Mountains, and the High Peak District. Several general falls of snow recorded. A very snowy year.

1916-17: Emulated some great snowy years. The Midlands and South West recorded large falls of up to 14 inches, and in Southern and Western Ireland Cheviot Blizzard took place. The Highlands also saw lots of snow this year. A very snowy year.

1917-18 was average, whereas 1918-20 saw deep snow in London twice, one fall being 9 inches. Scotland also recorded large falls, as did the Midlands and North of England. September saw snow in Dartmoor! A snowy period.

1920-23 were little or average. 1ft of snow fell in Plymouth and Southern England saw 6inches+ widespread. There was a blizzard in Scotland, North and West England, South Wales (yippee!) and South West England at the end of March.

1923-24: little snow in the South West, but Braemar in Scotland saw 2.5ft of snow in November! There was snow on my birthday (January 9th) in London, and late February in Scotland. A snowy year.

1925-26: Late November saw snow in London, East Anglia, and North East England, Norwich recording 7 inches. There was also notable snow in mid January, and also mid May in the Cotswolds! Snowy.

1927-28: Snow fell mid December in England and Wales, and on Christmas day through Boxing day, a blizzard raged in Southern England, from Kent to Cornwall. 1-2ft of snow fell, with 20ft drifts on Salisbury Plain! Christmas day must have been phenomenal! Snow fell mid March in the East. Very Snowy.

1928-29: A lot of snow fell in the West late December, again the West fared best in mid February, with Wales and the West Midlands getting it good! 6ft fell in 15hrs on Dartmoor ( Holne Chase ) mid February. Snowy.

1930-31: February opened well, with 2ft of Snow in Northern England and Scotland, and later on snow fell generally ( early March ) with 18 inches falling on Orkney. Snowy.

1931-32: Little snow. In fact probably Scotland's most snowless winter in memory! No real snow to note.

1932-33: Late October, snow fell in Scotland, an early start to the skiing season! Late February there was a Great Blizzard, for Ireland, Wales, South West England, Northern England, and the Midlands. Whipsnade recorded 2ft of snow, Harrogate and Huddersfield 30 inches, Buxton 28 inches! Very Snowy.

1936-37: Early December saw snow in Scotland, predominantly the North. Late February saw the next big snowfall, with a blizzard in many parts, 1ft recorded in Northern England and Scotland. Early March saw snow for Southern England. A blizzard swept through the whole northern portion of the UK in mid March. Snowy.

1937-42: These years were all snowy, with numerous falls of 1-2ft, and occasional falls (such as 194-41) in which snow depths of up to 16 foot (drifts) were recorded. Places worst affected by this mini outbreak of snowy winters were Scotland and Northern England, but the South was also quite badly affected, more particularly the South West and Wales. 1939-40 saw the supposed 'blizzard of the decade' in Scotland and England when in late January snow fell widely, excluding only some areas. The snowy period ended in 1942-43, when little snow was recorded the next 2 winters.

1944-45: Mid December saw snow in Western Scotland, although the amount isn't clear. In the first half of January, snow reached a depth of 2ft in Bellingham. Late January saw South Wales, and South West England bear the brunt (yippee!) with 1-2ft falling in this area, Cardiff seeing an amazing 30inches! Northern England and Southern Scotland also saw some snow late January, although again, details are sketchy. Very snowy.

1946-47: The year you've most probably been waiting for! One of the snowiest winters to date, probably the worst since 1814 (see part 5). Snow fell on the 19th December in Southern England. Then there was a notable mild spell, extremely mild in parts, with 14c being reached by day. Then from the 22nd January, it began! There was continuous snow cover from this date, right up till 17th March! Late January saw 7 inches of snow in South West England and the Scilly Isles (unusual). Early February saw the turn of the Midlands (Southern) and East Anglia, while Northern England, North Wales and Eastern Scotland saw snow in late February. In early March there was a blizzard in England and Wales, with 1ft widely, and 5ft accumulated on the hills! 12th March saw snow for the Border Country. 1946-47 was strange, because it started up late, and lasted a long time. I think 2003-04 will mirror 1947 in lots of ways, mainly in terms of snowfall, but not so extreme and long lasting. Very snowy.

1947-50: Little or average snowfall, although some large falls of up to 12 inches.

1950-51: The year my mum was born (1951), and a big weather event also took place! This winter will be remembered as the snowiest winter of last century at high levels. There were 102 days of lying snow at Dalwhinnie (1000ft) (83 days reputedly in 1946-47) 15th December saw 15 inches of snow In Shanklin, IOW, in 3.5 hours! Bournemouth saw 10 inches, Scarborough and Lowestoft, 14 inches. Snowy.

1951-54: Average years in terms of snowfall, though one noteworthy fall of 1ft in Wales and the Southern Midlands ( late November ) with drifts of 30 feet. Some other falls of 12 inches at the end of this period.

1954-56: 2 snowy winters, Aberdeen seeing 2ft of the white stuff in December 1954. Early January 1955 seeing general snow of about 4-12 inches. Mid January was snowy as well, with falls of 5ft in Blackpool, Lancashire, and Yorkshire (drifts). Northern Scotland and North East England also seeing large falls, of up to 2 feet. February was generally snowy, although especially in Northern Scotland. Mid May saw snow in the high Pennine regions. December 1955 saw frequent blizzards, affecting Scotland most. The East and North snowiest generally, with Scotland faring the best overall. Snowy.

1957-58: Shoeburyness seeing 23 inches this winter! Snowy. The build up to 1962-63 saw little or average snow though.

1961-62: The year proceeding the 'big' one. Snow in the Christmas week, widespread with London and the South East seeing 6 inches (very similar to last year). Early January in the Midlands saw 14 inches of snow. Snow in March also, especially Scotland, but 10 inches recorded in Jersey! Average.

1962-63: A famous winter.Very cold. Mid November saw snow in the South West. Late December (commensing Boxing Day: the start of the bitter cold) saw blizzards in Southern England. London had 12 inches of drifting snow. January and February had widespread falls, especially Devon and North East England with 2ft. Very Snowy. My mum, 12 at the time, and dad, 11, keep telling me stories of how long they were away from school for. The snow in Hampshire was supposedly as deep as the hedgerows were high! People managed to walk on the tops of the frozen shrubbery, rather than risk driving through the deep snow! An amazing winter.

1965-66: The second half of November saw snow in most areas. The next lot came a bit later, late January, in Eastern parts. February, the turn of the North East. April was surprising though, as heavy falls were recorded, exceptionally heavy in parts of Northern England, where up to 1 foot was found! Mid April saw more snow, with 5 inches in the South. Quite remarkable late falls, but other than that, not a spectacular winter as that of 62-63! Still regarded as snowy though I would say.

1968-70: The first of these 2 winters saw snow in late December, around the New Year, in Eastern Scotland and England. Eastern Yorkshire saw a massive 16 inches! Mid February saw more snow, this time more to the West, with England and Wales seeing the most. Mid March saw more in the Pennines, and a TV mast fell down. 69-70 saw snow for Northern England, North Wales, and Scotland in mid November. Mid December saw snow for the North again. Mid February, most parts, and early March, snow in Wales and England, with the Midlands getting 12 inches.

1970-76: Little snow for 6 winters! Ring any bells?! Very similar pattern to the 90s-early 00s, ending the snow drought with a hot summer (76 / 03!) when the snow returned for 1976.

1976-77: Heavy wet snow fell in early December, mid December, and mid January. Mid January also saw some good coverings though, up to 6 inches lying at times.

1977-78: Mid January, 6 foot drifts! A week later, and 4 inches fell. Mid February saw 4 inches also. Late January, heavy snow in Scotland, drifting, 28 inches falling in parts! Mid February (see above) was very snowy in the North East, East and South West. February 11th had 1 ft in Durham and Edinburgh. Feb. 15-16th South West England, blizzard with huge drifts, sounds like my cup of tea!

1978-79: The last really severe, snowy winter, for now anyway, and one my parents go on about! Late December falls of 6-7n inches in Southern Scotland and the North East started it off. It was very cold in parts. Mid February saw drifts of 6-7 feet on the East coast of England. Mid March had severe blizzards and drifting, in North Eastern England drifts reached a staggering 15 feet! Very snowy.

1981-82: Another one my parents go on about! Mid December, South West and Southern England seeing 12 inches. North East England getting 7 inches, with 6 foot drifts. 2 days later (20th December) Northern England got 7 inches, and 6 foot drifts. Mid January, there was general snow, with a cover of 1-2 feet in parts. Snowy, and very cold.

1984-85: Very cold and snowy, especially in Southern England. My parents also go on about this one, as they lived in Hampshire at the time, and my brother was born. It was a very cold winter. Early January, there was snow in Eastern England. Mid January, East Anglia and Kent getting the goods, with 6 inches falling here. Mid January, South West England and South Wales (yippee!). Late January seeing snow in Scotland, and the prone spots, such as Aviemore, getting 2ft of level snow, Northern Britain as a whole affected though. Mid February, Southern England, 6-12 inches, substantial drifting taking place. 29th March gave Scotland snow. A memorable year. Snowy.

I am going to summarise the past 20 years. The late 80s saw little snowfall, ranging from generally no snowfall : 1988-90 (a couple of terrible winters, like that of 1998-00, correlation there) to 12 inches (Scotland, late November 1985) the early 90s were different.

1990-91 saw 8 inches of snow in the Midlands in early December 1990, with 2 foot drifts in Derbyshire. In early January there was 1 foot of snowfall in Northern Scotland. In mid February there was general snowfall, with Bingley in Yorkshire seeing a whopping 20 inches!

1991-93 saw little or no snowfall though, a disappointment.

1993-96 weren't so bad though, with falls of up to 40cm in Leeds (January 25th 1995 I remember 1995 very well, it was a good year for snow, the coldest temperature since records began recorded in Braemar, Scotland) In 1993 there was a white Christmas in South Wales (yippee!) and Wessex. Before that, there was some snow for Scotland and Wales (6 inches 20th-24th December) and 4-8 inches of snow in late November for the Eastern spine of the UK. The IOW (Isle of Wight) to Lincolnshire saw 6 inches in early January. Mid February (1994) saw 4 inches in Northern England. Late February had 1ft of snow in Eastern Scotland. 1994-95 saw many falls of up to 40cm throughout the UK. I remember walking home from school in early march 1995 with a blizzard commensing, 15cm in total, we were off school for a week! As I said above, Leeds saw 40cm of snow in 3 hours in late January 1995! Late March also saw snow for the Northern half of England, 35cm widely here. 1995-96 saw snow on Christmas Eve/ Day in Scotland and the North East, with 35cm falling in the Shetlands. The end of January (South East) and early February (North West: Lancashire 13cm, 2 foot drifts) and also South West Scotland seeing some aswell. Mid February saw some more in the South, before some more to end the season in mid March (East).

1997-00, hardly any snow, 1999-00 virtually snowless, so not a very good end to the millenium, in terms of snowfall, anyway.

Into the current century, not much has passed yet of course, but what does the future hold?

2000-01:Not a bad year in terms of snow, especially for the North. Late December saw a general fall of around 4 inches, Glasgow and Belfast seeing 8 inches though. Mid January saw the next snow, this time affecting Central and Eastern areas. A few days later, and the Chilterns saw some of the white stuff. Early February, more snow, Eastern Scotland and North East England getting 12-18 inches over 300m! Not bad! Aboyne getting a respectable 2ft! Late February the next fall, South East Scotland , N. Ireland and Northern England., getting it good, with Lanark recording a massive 2ft of snow! A pleasing year in terms of snowfall, certainly for the North anyway.

2001-02: Little snow, a disappointing year for me.

2002-03:A different winter, in that zonality wasn't persistantly there, in fact High Pressure easily dominated affairs after mid January. Some good snowfalls of up to 2 inches here in South Wales (200m asl) and the South East seeing quite a bit. London getting the most snow its seen for a good while. Easterly winds occasionally, brinign temperatures down a lot, with a very cold continent contributing. I recorded -15c windchill in early February! Scotland unlucky though, not seeing as much as 2000-01, Esterlies no the best wind direction for the North. A very dry winter overall, after early flooding in January. Astonishingly different to the 90s in terms of sunshine and rain totals. A good winter, although no where near snowy enough here in South Wales.

2003-04: Fairly good in terms of snowfall, in comparison to many recent Winters anyway. Snow fell as early as October in parts of Scotland, and there were a few flurries further South and some general sleet on October 22nd over high ground. Before Christmas, some snow fell 22nd, for parts of Scotland and Eastern England. Snow did fall elsewhere but it didn't really amount to much. On New Years Eve/Day wet snow fell for a time, particularly across Northern England and over high ground, where several cm's fell. In mid January snow fell fairly widely across mid Wales and the Midlands, with high ground in Powys recording upwards of 6 inches.Snow also fell across Northern England the next day, with over 6 inches in Northumberland. January 28th saw an almost countrywide blizzard, although very short, it left a few inches over parts of Southern England, particularly the East. Late February, and snow fell on 26th, 27th and 28th, mostly in the North and North East with showers giving 6 inches or more to sea level in NE Scotland and Eastern England, but on 27th Wales, Northern Ireland and SW England got over 6 inches in places, particularly over high ground and in Western Wales, where as much as 10 inches fell over high ground. 12th March saw as much as 10 inches of snow for parts of SW England and Wales, with some parts of South Wales seeing more, particularly over high ground. A fairly good Winter, not spectacular!

2004/05: Generally below average snow across the country, despite the cold spell in late February/March, and frequent westerly winds. There was a frontal snow event on 18 November, bringing accumulations to the Midlands in particular, and also snow showers in NE Scotland on the 18th and 19th. December was a westerly month but there was a cold north-westerly incursion on Christmas Day, bringing snow showers to the north and west, and a white Christmas for some.

Westerlies continued during January with the only notable snow event being another NW'ly incursion on the 18th, with big but brief snowstorms over Northern Ireland and south-west Scotland.

February was another fairly mild month with frequent anticyclonic north-westerly regimes. There was a northerly blast around the 13th, but as the Arctic was unusually warm, there was little in the way of snow however a rather more potent northerly occurred on the 19th/20th with snow showers in the northeast. The last third of February and early March had persistent easterly winds and snow showers, but generally limited accumulations on the ground. Inland parts of south-east Scotland, north-east England and Kent, however, often had significant accumulations. Overall this easterly spell disappointed many snow lovers.

2005/06: This winter was widely close to average snow-wise. A significant snow event affected south-west England on the 25th November with snow showers and local thunder, and accumulations even in places like Plymouth and Exeter. Snow also affected Scotland and the northeast but this turned to rain later in the day. Further snow on 28 November, especially affecting the Midlands and north-west England.

December was mostly sunny and fairly cold with high pressure there was a brief northerly on the 17th with snow showers for Norfolk, and a cold easterly on the 27th-29th brought many snow showers to eastern districts. Not much snow to speak of during January and February (the late February '06 easterly was even less potent than the Feb '05 one), but this changed into March. A northerly airstream during first week March brought snow showers for many, with 50cm in northeast Scotland and thundersnow widely reported around Aberdeen. More heavy snowfalls on the 12th March, which especially affected western Britain. Further snow in early April, with heavy snowstorm in north-east England on the 8th, and in south-east England late on the 9th.

2006/07:A largely snowless winter, with persistent westerly winds, but with one northerly outbreak per month in January, February and March. Snow in south-west Scotland on 17/18 November, mainly high ground, from the winter's only polar maritime westerly snow event. Heavy temporary snow over Scotland on 18 January, and this cold air spread south with a frontal snow event, especially affecting southern Britain, on the 23rd/24th. Into February, there was a northerly blast on the 5th-7th with snow showers in the northeast, then the 8th and 9th had significant frontal snow over much of the country. Parts of central southern England had their first significant snow events since February 1996. There was then no more snow until 18-20 March, when a northerly blast brought sunshine and snow showers, with Scotland and the northeast quite heavily affected on the 20th.

2007/08:Another mild, largely snowless winter, but followed by some noteworthy wintry spells in early to mid spring. There were localised snow events from short-lived Arctic incursions in November, one in the Midlands on the 18th and another minor snow event in north-eastern areas on the 23rd. After a snowless December (the second in a row), a brief easterly blast brought snow showers and local thunder to eastern Scotland, NE England and Northern Ireland on the 3rd January, but mild air returned on the 4th. The rest of January was mostly mild with south-westerly winds, but further localised snow events occurred during the first half, mainly on high ground in the north. February was remarkable for its sunshine over much of England and Wales, but the only snow event of note occurred on the 1st/2nd, with high ground in northern England, plus parts of Scotland and Norfolk, briefly affected.

Spring 2008 contained somewhat more wintry weather, with a brief NW'ly on the 3rd which brought snow showers to western areas, and lying snow to western Scotland. Cold northerly winds persisted throughout the Easter weekend with frequent, albeit generally slight, snowfalls, with northeast Scotland and East Anglia most heavily hit. For many parts, though, the most significant snow event of the "winter" occurred on 6-7 April, with widespread heavy snowfalls and accumulations, and maxima of just 2 or 3C in some places.

2008/9 The Winter of 2008/9 bought a mixed bag but overall was cooler than average with some notably cold spells. December started on the cold side before becoming milder after mid-month but between Christmas and New Year the cold returned with a vengeance on a biting easterly wind.

The cold continued into January too before gradually petering out during the second week with the remainder of the month twoing and froing between cooler and milder spells of weather. The cold start meant that it was the coldest January since 2005 in England and Wales.

February started with more cold weather and some significant falls of snow, but the cold slowly eased through the month to leave temperatures close to average overall. The winter as a whole was colder than average though and turned out to be the coldest winter since 1995/96.

2009/10December 2009 started on a mild note but it wasn't to last and from mid-month temperatures dipped with some widespread falls of snow. The cold continued right through Christmas and toward new year, which meant it was another cold December with temperatures widely 2-3c below average.

More cold and snowy weather greeted us in the new year and this continued through much of the first half of January before milder air returned for a while, although the cold did make a return by the end of the month.

The cold theme then carried through into February and although it was often cold and frosty initially,later in the month bought some major falls of snow - especially in Scotland.

Overall the winter was around 2c colder than average making it the coldest winter since 1978/9. It's also worth noting that northern Scotland saw it's coldest winter on record!

2010/11December 2010 will go down as an infamous winter month in the UK (perhaps it should be added to our famous winters run down?). Temperatures were around 5c below average which made it the coldest December in over 100 years, and there was significant and widespread snowfall to go with the cold. A good deal of the country had snow on the ground right up to and beyond Christmas.

January saw the transition to milder weather gain pace though although the northern half of the country did see some more wintry weather. The change was all relative though, as although it was considerably milder than December - it did still turn out to be colder than normal for much of the country.

February was a mild month though, with some wet and windy weather at times as Atlantic systems regularly moved in across the UK, and it was this which will stop the Winter of 2010/11 going down as a famous winter overall - in fact despite the incredibly cold December, overall it was milder than 2009/10.

7. Why do we need it?

"Gender parity will not be attained for almost a century," according to the IWD campaign, referring to the World Economic Forum, it says "none of us will see gender parity in our lifetimes, and nor likely will many of our children".

It's also recently been a very tough time, with data from UN Women revealing the coronavirus pandemic could wipe out 25 years of increasing gender equality. Women are doing significantly more domestic chores and family care because of the pandemic, which in turn, can impact upon job and education opportunities.

Despite concerns over coronavirus, marches took place around the world for IWD 2020.

While the majority were peaceful, in the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek, police detained dozens of women's rights activists shortly after masked men reportedly attacked marchers. Activists say women's rights are deteriorating in the country.

Across Pakistan, marches took place in several cities in the face of violent threats and legal petitions.

And in Mexico about 80,000 people took to the streets to highlight the country's rising levels of violence against women. More than 60 people left injured. Although the rally began peacefully, police say some groups threw petrol bombs and officers responded with tear gas.

In the past few years though, we have seen progress and the women's movement reach an unprecedented scale.

This year saw the inauguration of Kamala Harris as the first female, first black and first Asian-American US vice president.

In 2019 Finland elected a new coalition government headed by five women, abortion was decriminalised in Northern Ireland and a law that controlled how women acted and dressed in public in Sudan was repealed.

And who can forget the impact of the #MeToo conversation, which began back in 2017 with a hashtag on social media, speaking out against experiences of harassment and sexual assault? It's now a growing global phenomenon, which continues to highlight unacceptable and inappropriate behaviour and has led to many high profile convictions.

Update 5 March 2021: This article has been updated to include more information about the theme for IWD 2021.

Watch the video: Today in History for March 4th