The Commonweal

The Commonweal

In December, 1884, William Morris, Walter Crane, Eleanor Marx, Ernest Belfort Bax and Edward Aveling left the Social Democratic Federation and formed the Socialist League. Strongly influenced by the ideas of Morris, the party published a manifesto where it advocated revolutionary international socialism.

William Morris believed that the main function of all socialist organisations was to "educate the people". It was therefore decided that the Socialist League should publish a journal called Commonweal. Financed by a £300 loan from Morris, the monthly paper first appeared in February 1885 declaring that it had "one aim - the propagation of Socialism". The first edition of Commonweal had eight 15 by 10 inch pages and sold over 5,000 copies.

The Commonweal remained a monthly paper until it changed to a weekly in May 1886. Although the journal employed the talents of writers and illustrators such as William Morris, Walter Crane, Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling, sales were disappointing. During industrial disputes such as the London Dockers' Strike, sales increased, but they fell soon afterwards. The Commonweal, with sales of between 2,000 and 3,000 copies a week, was costing William Morris about £500 a year. In 1895 Morris accepted defeat and the Commonweal ceased publication.

Take courage, and believe that we of this age, in spite of all its torment and disorder, have been born to a wonderful heritage fashioned of the work of those that have gone before us; and that the day of the organization of man is dawning. It is not we who can build up the new social order; the past ages have done the most of that work for us; but we can clear our eyes to the signs of the times, and we shall then see that the attainment of a good condition of life is being made

possible for us, and that it is now our business to stretch out our hands and take it.

And how? Chiefly, I think, by educating people to a sense of their real capacities as men, so that they may be able to use to their own good the political power which is rapidly being thrust upon them; to get them to see that the old system of organizing labour for individual profit is becoming unmanageable, and that the whole people have now got to choose

between the confusion resulting from the breakup of that system and the determination to take in hand the labour now organized for profit, and use its organization for the livelihood of the community: to get people to see that individual profit-makers are not a necessity for labour but an obstruction to it, and that not only or chiefly because they are the perpetual pensioners of labour, as they are, but rather because of the waste which their existence as a class necessitates. All this we have to teach people, when we have taught ourselves; and I admit that the work is long and burdensome; as I began by saying, people have been made so timorous of change by the terror of starvation that even the unluckiest of them are stolid and hard to move. Hard as the work is, however, its reward is not doubtful. The mere fact that a body of men, however small, are banded together as Socialist missionaries shows that the change is going on. As the working classes, the real organic part of society, take in these ideas, hope will arise in them, and they will claim changes in society, many of which doubtless will not tend directly towards their emancipation, because they will be claimed without due knowledge of the one thing necessary to claim, equality of condition; but which indirectly will help to break up our rotten sham society, while that claim for equality of condition will be made constantly and with growing loudness till it must be listened to, and then at last it will only be a step over the border, and the civilized world will be socialized; and, looking back on what has been, we shall be astonished to think of how long we submitted to live as we live now.

Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the political structure during the period from 1649 to 1660 when England (including Wales) and later Ireland and Scotland [1] were governed as a republic after the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", [2] adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now generally referred to as the Third English Civil War.

In 1653, after dissolution of the Rump Parliament, the Army Council adopted the Instrument of Government which made Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of a united "Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland", inaugurating the period now usually known as the Protectorate. After Cromwell's death, and following a brief period of rule under his son, Richard Cromwell, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, starting a process that led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 – called by some the Interregnum – although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwell's formal assumption of power in 1653.

In retrospect, the period of republican rule for England was a failure in the short term. During the 11-year period, no stable government was established to rule the English state for longer than a few months at a time. Several administrative structures were tried, and several Parliaments called and seated, but little in the way of meaningful, lasting legislation was passed. The only force keeping it together was the personality of Oliver Cromwell, who exerted control through the military by way of the "Grandees", being the Major-Generals and other senior military leaders of the New Model Army. Not only did Cromwell's regime crumble into near anarchy upon his death and the brief administration of his son, but the monarchy he overthrew was restored in 1660, and its first act was officially to erase all traces of any constitutional reforms of the Republican period. Still, the memory of the Parliamentarian cause, dubbed Good Old Cause by the soldiers of the New Model Army, lingered on. It would carry through English politics and eventually result in a constitutional monarchy.

The Commonwealth period is better remembered for the military success of Thomas Fairfax, Oliver Cromwell, and the New Model Army. Besides resounding victories in the English Civil War, the reformed Navy under the command of Robert Blake defeated the Dutch in the First Anglo-Dutch War which marked the first step towards England's naval supremacy. In Ireland, the Commonwealth period is remembered for Cromwell's brutal subjugation of the Irish, which continued the policies of the Tudor and Stuart periods.


Alec was an overworked journalist. Nick was an exhausted startup employee. A mutual friend forced them to grab beers together and forty-five minutes later, they had a new project to fill their nonexistent time. Nick started hounding connections to book guests and Alec worked long evenings producing the content. Alec willingly switched jobs to a marketing firm while Nick was laid off from his startup. The community grew as Nick traveled the world while sleeping on couches to interview renowned guests. After applying for a press pass to the 2020 X Games, ESPN approved their application and the

Commonwealth became the first podcast to receive press credentials in the sport’s history. Regardless of the crazy, unexpected things that happen in their listener’s lives, an episode of the Commonwealth comes out on Monday morning.

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Since 1989 the Commonweal has been southeastern Minnesota’s premier professional live theater company. With a rotating repertory of comedies, dramas, musicals and more, we offer something for everyone. Located in historic Bluff Country, the Commonweal is consistently ranked as one of the top things to do in Lanesboro, MN. Drama Unfolds Where the Root River Bends. Join us!

Our History

Slip back in time as you explore how the Commonwealth Games bring nations together in a colourful celebration of humanity.

The Commonwealth Games bring nations together in a colourful celebration of sport and human performance. But the Games have evolved dramatically since its beginnings in 1930.

Held every four years, with a hiatus during World War II, the Games have grown from featuring 11 countries and 400 athletes, to a global spectacle of 6,600 sports men and women from across 72 nations and territories.

Underpinned by the core values of humanity, equality and destiny, the Games aim to unite the Commonwealth family through a glorious festival of sport. Often referred to as the ‘Friendly Games’, the event is renowned for inspiring athletes to compete in the spirit of friendship and fair play.

Some of the most memorable sporting moments in history took place at the Commonwealth Games:

At the 1954 Vancouver Games, Roger Bannister and John Landy became the first people to break the four-minute mile in a race that became known as the ‘Miracle Mile’.

Chantal Petitclerc became the first gold medal winner in a para-sport in 2002. An occasion that marked the first time an event for an athlete with a disability had been part of the official programme.

And women’s boxing became a mainstay of the Commonwealth Games in 2014 with Team England’s Nicola Adams taking the first gold medal in the flyweight division.

The encouraging ethos of the Games has stirred athletes to sprint faster, leap higher and push themselves to the very limits of what the human body is capable of.

The 2022 Games will be the first time West Midlands has played host to the event, following London 1934, and Manchester 2002. As preparations for the Birmingham 2022 Commonwealth Games take shape, the West Midlands become part of a lasting legacy. One that displays world-class teamwork, athleticism and friendship.


Events before "The Commonwealth" Timeline

During the World War II, United States of America rem

Franklin D. Roosevelt as Acting Secretary of War, circa 1918.

ained neutral at the first stage of war until the Japanese Empire attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaiian Islands. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared war on Japan and the rest of the Axis countries. After one month of war declaration, Mexico, by the leading of José Antonio Urquiza from National Synarchist Union, joined the Axis Pact and annexed all the countries in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. It declared war on the United States and its allies on the 18 January 1941. It invaded New Mexico, Texas, Arizona and California as they crossed the borders. President Roosevelt already saw that the war between Mexico and the US was imminent. He quickly sent his forces down south and eradicated all the Mexican Forces by only two months and then the American Forces took many Offensive Campaigns throughout the Mexican Territories, As the United States has to help Great Britain to fight with Nazi Germany and the United States itself had to fight with the Japanese by themselves. After the assassination of José Antonio Urquiza in Mexico City on April 13th, 1942 and the American Forces

Franklin D. Roosevelt during his presidency, 1943.

took the most of the Mexican original territories and recently-annexed territories. Mexican State unconditionally surrendered. United States, as a victor, has annexed the Northern Mexico and the Caribbean Islands. Then President Roosevelt created two protectorates in the Former Mexican territories named as Aztlan and Honduras. However, they gave two countries to Great Britain, which was Belize and Jamaica, as the "gifts" which the British helped the Americans in the war by sending in the Special Forces to assassinate José Antonio Urquiza.

After a year in fighting alone, the Americans started their operations in European Front by sending in bomber aircraft to destroy the most of the forces in Western Europe. And mostly aid Britain and the resistances across Europe to fought with Germany. The Allied Forces started to invade Normandy and Sicily in the mid-1943, with help from the Eastern Front, the Soviet Union managed to expelled most of the German forces out from the Baltics and the [[File:Truman_initiating_Korean_involvement.jpg|thumb|left|President Truman signed in for his Presidency, April 12th, 1945.] Belarussian Front. The Allied Forces, with the Soviet Forces, started the counter-offensive battles throughout Europe, which cornered Germany. After two years of fighting, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his special bunker underneath the Government Building as the Soviets entered Berlin and occupied the Reichstag to find Hitler. Germany, with Admiral Karl Dönitz as the Head of State, unconditionally surrendered to the Allied Forces, the Nazi top government officials face the criminal charges. Some were executed and some were jailed with life sentence. However, President Roosevelt died approximately two weeks before the war in Europe was officially over on May 1st, 1945. He was succeeded by his Vice President, Harry S. Truman.

However, the Pacific Front was not ended as the Japanese fought alone, the Allied Forces, especially the United States was facing with many military casualties as they pushed toward, closer to the Japanese Homeland. President Truman ordered the Atomic Bombs, from a secret "Manhattan Project", to be dropped at the Japanese Islands as soon as possible. The first bomb dropped at Hiroshima on August 6th, 1945, left more than 150,000 civilians dead in the blast. Three days later, the second bomb dropped in Nagasaki, left more than 80,000 civilians dead. Emperor Hirohito was shocked as he saw it in the newspaper that more than 200,000 of the Japanese civilians is killed by the Americans. He wasn't blamed the Americans for causing the death of the civilians. Instead, he blamed his far-right Government which led by Prime Minister Hideki Tojo. He ordered the Military to capture the entire cabinet members and ordered that these people to be executed in front of the Imperial Palace. He was angry towards Tojo that causing the entire war with the United States. He subsequently surrendered to the United States and the rest of the Allied Forces. He agreed that the Japan will be under American administration as long as they like. The war in Pacific Front officially over on September 2nd, 1945.

Point of Divergence of "The Commonwealth" Timeline

During the Entrance of the United States to the World War II, America won the war over the Mexican States in 1942. United States annexed Northern Part of Mexico and the Caribbean Islands and also created three American protectorates by President Roosevelt. After the war was officially over as the Japanese Emperor, Hirohito signed the instrument of surrender by himself.

President Truman officially declared United Commonwealths in the Congress, circa 1952

In December 1947, President Truman, during his Speech in the House of the Representatives, introduced the bill to the Congress called as "The Commonwealth Act" which to created the Commonwealths in the United States. The first initial seven Commonwealths is Columbia-Yellowstone, Angel, Louisiana, Rio Grande, Virginia, Carolina and New York. the Act was ratified by the Senate on April 7th, 1948. After the Commonwealths established for three years, In 1951, United States officially annexed Aztlan Protectorate and then combined to the rest of the states to establish ten more Commonwealths. There are California, Nevada-Colorado, North Plains, Ohio, New England, Florida, Navajo, Aztlan, Guatemala and Caribbean. President Truman officially reconstituted the country from the United States as "United Commonwealths of America" on August 1st, 1952. President Truman resigned from his presidency on January 12th, 1953.

United Commonwealths of America

Timeline of the United Commonwealths establishment from 1942 - 1953.

original establishment of the Commonwealths was the American Declaration of Independence from King George III of England and the rest of the British Empire. The United States remained as a country for 176 years before World War II begun and before Truman's Presidency. As the United States gained more lands from the former Fascists "Mexican State" during the WWII. President Truman introduced "The Commonwealth Act" bill to the congress during the Speech in the House of the Representatives. First, created seven commonwealths in the United States in 1948. Then later in 1951, President Truman annexed Aztlan Protectorate and created ten more commonwealths. The last commonwealth admitted to the United States was Honduras, which was after the official Annexation of the Honduras Protectorate. Later in August, 1952. The United States was reconstituted by the majority of the Congress and President Truman to the "United Commonwealths of America".

The Commonweal - History

To some, the Commonwealth is an out-dated remnant of the British Empire - although it would be impolite to say so at the biannual Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Edinburgh (November 23-25).

To its members, however, the Commonwealth is a voluntary association of 50 independent states, which is in the business of promoting democracy, good government, human rights, and economic development.

The modern Commonwealth has its roots in the 19th century, when the British Empire began to disintegrate. As some of its constituent parts gained varying degrees of independence from the motherland, a new constitutional definition of their relationship with each other had to be found.

At the Imperial Conference of 1926, the United Kingdom and its dominions agreed that they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations."

But only following India and Pakistan's independence in 1947 did the organisation define its modern shape.

It dropped the word British from its name, the allegiance to the crown from its statute, and became a receptacle for decolonised nations. The Monarch of the United Kingdom, however, remained the official 'Head of the Commonwealth'.

Today, the Commonwealth has 53 members, comprising most of the former dependencies of the United Kingdom, and Australia and New Zealand. Around one quarter of the world's population lives in its member countries.

In spite of this impressive statistic, the organisation appears strangely ineffectual. Besides the London-based Commonwealth Secretariat which was established in 1964, it has no formal structure as such, and its members have no contractual obligations as exist in the United Nations, the European Union or the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Instead, the Commonwealth draws its strength from its moral authority. Committed to racial equality and national sovereignty, it was a focus of the campaign against apartheid. South Africa left the Commonwealth in 1961, to rejoin only after the end of apartheid in 1994.

The ethics of international politics

A formal 'code of ethics' was adopted in 1971, when Commonwealth countries pledged to improve human rights and to seek racial and economic justice. After the end of the Cold War the organisation expanded its mission statement. At the 1991 Heads of Government meeting in Harare the promotion of democracy and good government were added to the list of Commonwealth principles.

All these were fine ideas, but the organisation had no mechanism or means of enforcing them.

But two years ago, at a summit in New Zealand, the Commonwealth finally did agree on practical steps to deal with governments who persistently violated these principles. The first country to feel the difference was Nigeria, whose membership was suspended during the same meeting.

To be able to tackle similar problems, a Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group was formed. The experience of dealing with Nigeria has, however, cast doubt on how effective the Commonwealth can be in enforcing its principles.


“Clearly written and accessible to a general audience, The Health of the Commonwealth helps to center medicine and public health, alongside traditional industries like steel and mining, in the story of the development of modern Pennsylvania. By complicating the narrative of Pennsylvania’s past and its post-industrial future, Higgins provides an important resource for students and citizens to help inform ongoing discussions about the future of the Commonwealth.”Andrew T. Simpson, Assistant Professor of History at Duquesne University

“Higgins has written a vital and necessary history of public health in Pennsylvania, the chief strength of which is a multidimensional, multivariate narrative that recognizes the contributions of women, native peoples, immigrants, and an evolving category of healthcare professionals, from physicians to nurses. No linear narrative of scientific progress, The Health of the Commonwealth argues that scientific, political, economic, and larger cultural influences inform and shape a fascinating history. This book is as remarkable for its method of investigation as for the breadth and depth of Higgins’s narrative. He writes with authority and confidence, and readers will be amply rewarded for his timely perspective.”—Dr. Robert D. Hicks, Senior Consulting Scholar and William Maul Measey Chair for the History of Medicine at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia

"Higgins’s highly accessible title will prove to be invaluable to students and educators alike…. It is approachable, appealing to the general reader as well as to a diversity of specialists seeking to orient themselves in Pennsylvania’s centuries-long journey, while serving as a model for scholars seeking to explore and share the histories of other regions and nations." — Watermark


The Commonwealth of the Philippines was also known as the "Philippine Commonwealth", [14] [15] or simply as "the Commonwealth". Its official name in Spanish, the other of the Commonwealth's two official languages, was Commonwealth de Filipinas ( [filiˈpinas] ). The 1935 Constitution uses "the Philippines" as the country's short-form name throughout its provisions and uses "the Philippine Islands" only to refer to pre-1935 status and institutions. [13] Under the Insular Government (1901–1935), both terms were used officially. [a] [16] In 1937, Tagalog was declared to be the basis of a national language, [3] effective after two years. The country's official name translated into Tagalog would be Kómonwélt ng Pilipinas (locally [pɪlɪˈpinɐs] ). [17]

Creation Edit

The pre-1935 U.S. territorial administration, or Insular Government, was headed by a governor general who was appointed by the president of the United States. In December 1932, the U.S. Congress passed the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act with the premise of granting Filipinos independence. Provisions of the law included reserving several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. [18] [19] When it reached him for possible signature, President Herbert Hoover vetoed the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, but the American Congress overrode Hoover's veto in 1933 and passed the law over Hoover's objections. [20] The bill, however, was opposed by the then-Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was also rejected by the Philippine Senate. [21]

This led to the creation and passing of the Tydings–McDuffie Act [b] or the Philippine Independence Act, which allowed the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with a ten-year period of peaceful transition to full independence – the date of which was to be on the 4th of July following the tenth anniversary of the establishment of the Commonwealth. [18] [22] [23]

A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30, 1934. On February 8, 1935, the 1935 Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of 177 to 1. The constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, 1935, and ratified by popular vote on May 14, 1935. [24] [25]

On September 16, 1935, [7] presidential elections were held. Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente leader Gregorio Aglipay, and others. Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively. [18]

The Commonwealth government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, 1935, in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. The event was attended by a crowd of around 300,000 people. [7]

Pre-War Edit

The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence. [18] These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a conscription for service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, and the colonization of Mindanao.

However, uncertainties, especially in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U.S. commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines, and in the economy due to the Great Depression, proved to be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, and of power struggles between Osmeña and Quezon, [18] especially after Quezon was permitted to be re-elected after one six-year term.

A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion and occupation during World War II.

World War II Edit

Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941. The Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U.S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation. Manila was declared an open city to prevent its destruction, [26] and it was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. [27] Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor, and Leyte until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in May 1942. [28]

Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, and later left for Australia prior to going to the U.S., where they set up a government in exile, based at the Shoreham Hotel, in Washington, D.C. [29] This government participated in the Pacific War Council as well as the Declaration by United Nations. Quezon became ill with tuberculosis and died from it, with Osmeña succeeding him as president. [30]

The main general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army (PCA), located on the military station in Ermita, Manila, was closed down on December 24, 1941. It was taken over by the Japanese Imperial forces when these occupied the city on January 2, 1942. Elsewhere in the country, other military posts of the PCA in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao engaged in military action against the Japanese. [ citation needed ]

Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, headed by president José P. Laurel. This pro-Japanese government became very unpopular. [31]

Resistance to the Japanese occupation continued in the Philippines. This included the Hukbalahap ("People's Army Against the Japanese"), which consisted of 30,000 armed men and controlled much of Central Luzon [31] they attacked both the Japanese and other non-Huk guerrillas. [32] Remnants of the Philippine Army, as well as unsurrendered Americans, also successfully fought the Japanese through guerrilla warfare. [33] These efforts eventually liberated all but 12 of the 48 provinces. [31]

General Douglas MacArthur's army landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944, [18] as well as the Philippine Commonwealth troops who arrived in other amphibious landings. The Philippine Constabulary was placed on active service with the Philippine Commonwealth Army and re-established on October 28, 1944, to June 30, 1946, during the Allied liberation to Post-World War II era. Fighting continued in remote corners of the Philippines until Japan's surrender in August 1945, which was signed on September 2 in Tokyo Bay. Estimates of Filipino war dead reached one million, and Manila was extensively damaged when Japanese marines refused to vacate the city when ordered to do so by the Japanese High Command. [34] After the war in the Philippines, the Commonwealth was restored and a one-year transitional period in preparation for independence began. Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxas winning as the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines and Elpidio Quirino winning as vice-president. [ citation needed ]

Independence Edit

The Commonwealth ended when the U.S. recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, as scheduled. [35] [36] However, the economy remained dependent on the U.S. [37] This was due to the Bell Trade Act, otherwise known as the Philippine Trade Act, which was a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States. [38]

Uprisings and agrarian reform Edit

During the Commonwealth period, tenant farmers held grievances often rooted to debt caused by the sharecropping system, as well as by the dramatic increase in population, which added economic pressure to the tenant farmers' families. [39] As a result, an agrarian reform program was initiated by the Commonwealth. However, success of the program was hampered by ongoing clashes between tenants and landowners. [ citation needed ]

An example of these clashes includes one initiated by Benigno Ramos through his Sakdalista movement, [40] which advocated tax reductions, land reforms, the breakup of the large estates or haciendas, and the severing of American ties. The uprising, which occurred in Central Luzon in May 1935, claimed about a hundred lives. [ citation needed ]

National language Edit

As per the 1935 constitution, the commonwealth had two official languages: English and Spanish. [1] [2] Due to the diverse number of Philippine languages, a provision calling for the "development and adoption of a common national language based on the existing native dialects" was drafted into the 1935 constitution. [41] In 1936, the national assembly enacted Commonwealth Act No. 184, creating the Surián ng Wikang Pambansà (National Language Institute). This body was initially composed of President Quezon and six other members from various ethnic groups. Deliberations were made and in 1937, [3] the body selected Tagalog, [41] as the basis for the national language this was made effective after two years. [ citation needed ]

In 1940, the government authorized the creation of a dictionary and grammar book for the language. In that same year, Commonwealth Act 570 was passed, allowing Filipino to become an official language upon independence. [41]

The cash economy of the Commonwealth was mostly agriculture-based. Products included abaca, coconuts and coconut oil, sugar, and timber. [42] Numerous other crops and livestock were grown for local consumption by the Filipino people. Other sources for foreign income included the spin-off from money spent at American military bases on the Philippines such as the naval base at Subic Bay and Clark Air Base (with U.S. Army airplanes there as early as 1919), both on the island of Luzon. [ citation needed ]

The performance of the economy was initially good despite challenges from various agrarian uprisings. Taxes collected from a robust coconut industry helped boost the economy by funding infrastructure and other development projects. However, growth was halted due to the outbreak of World War II. [42]

In 1939, a census of the Philippines was taken and determined that it had a population of 16,000,303 of these 15.7 million were counted as "Brown", 141.8 thousand as "Yellow", 19.3 thousand as "White", 29.1 thousand as "Negro", 50.5 thousand as "Mixed", and under 1 thousand "Other". [43] In 1941, the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000 there were 117,000 Chinese, 30,000 Japanese, and 9,000 Americans. [44] English was spoken by 26.3% of the population, according to the 1939 Census. [45] Spanish, after English overtook it beginning in the 1920s, became a language for the elite and in government it was later banned during the Japanese occupation. [46]

Estimated numbers of speakers of the dominant languages: [41]

The Commonwealth had its own constitution, which remained effective after independence until 1973, [47] and was self-governing [13] although foreign policy and military affairs would be under the responsibility of the United States, and Laws passed by the legislature affecting immigration, foreign trade, and the currency system had to be approved by the United States president. [12] Despite maintaining ultimate sovereignty, in some ways the US Government treated the Commonwealth as a sovereign state, and the Philippines sometimes acted in a state capacity in international relations. [48]

During the 1935–41 period, the Commonwealth of the Philippines featured a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly, [49] [50] and a Supreme Court, [51] all composed entirely of Filipinos, as well as an elected Resident Commissioner to the United States House of Representatives (as Puerto Rico does today). An American High Commissioner and an American Military Advisor, [35] Douglas MacArthur headed the latter office from 1937 until the advent of World War II in 1941, holding the military rank of Field Marshal of the Philippines. After 1946, the rank of field marshal disappeared from the Philippine military.

During 1939 and 1940, after an amendment in the Commonwealth's Constitution, a bicameral Congress, [52] consisting of a Senate, [52] and of a House of Representatives, [52] was restored, replacing the National Assembly. [52]

List of presidents Edit

The colors indicate the political party or coalition of each president at Election Day.

# President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term
1 Manuel L. Quezon November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944 [c] Nacionalista Sergio Osmeña 1
2 Sergio Osmeña August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista vacant
3 Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946 July 4, 1946 [d] Liberal Elpidio Quirino 3

Quezon administration (1935–1944) Edit

In 1935 Quezon won the Philippines' first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Bishop Gregorio Aglipay. [53] Quezon was inaugurated on November 15, 1935. [54] He is recognized as the second President of the Philippines. [55] When Manuel L. Quezon was inaugurated President of the Philippines in 1935, he became the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines since Emilio Aguinaldo and the Malolos Republic in 1898. However, in January 2008, Congressman Rodolfo Valencia of Oriental Mindoro filed a bill seeking instead to declare General Miguel Malvar as the second Philippine President, who took control over all Filipino forces after American soldiers captured President Emilio Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901. [56]

Quezon had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. [57] In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon was re-elected over former Senator Juan Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote. [58]

In a notable humanitarian act, Quezon, in cooperation with U.S. High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, facilitated the entry into the Philippines of Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe. Quezon was also instrumental in promoting a project to resettle the refugees in Mindanao. [59]

The Japanese invasion of the Philippines began with an invasion of Batan Island on December 8, 1941. When advancing Japanese forces threatened Manila, President Quezon, other senior officials of the Commonwealth government, and senior American military commanders relocated to Corregidor island, and Manila was declared an open city. On February 20, Quezon, his family, and senior officials of the Commonwealth government were evacuated from the island by submarine on the first leg of what came to be a relocation of the Commonwealth government in exile to the U.S. [30]

Quezon suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in a "cure cottage" in Saranac Lake, NY, where he died on August 1, 1944. [60] He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton [61] and re-interred in Manila at the Manila North Cemetery in 1979, his remains were moved to Quezon City within the monument at the Quezon Memorial Circle. [62]

Osmeña administration (1944–1946) Edit

Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon's death in 1944. [63] He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. [64] After the war Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and the various executive departments. He continued the fight for Philippine independence. [ citation needed ]

For the presidential election of 1946 Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. [65] Nevertheless, he was defeated by Manuel Roxas, who won 54% of the vote and became the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. [63]

History of the Commonweal Collection

The Commonweal library grew from the collection of its founder, David Hoggett (1929-75), a librarian and dedicated pacifist. His early interest in pacifism and nonviolence was fostered by the 3 years he spent working in India for the International Voluntary Service for Peace where he became involved in the Bhoodan "Land gift" movement based on Gandhian ideals of working collectively for the good of the community.

David Hoggett began his collection back in England in the 1950s, after he became paralysed as the result of a fall. With his mobility restricted, he read avidly and began amassing a large collection of books and pamphlets and a diverse range of journals on aspects of nonviolent social change, peace and reconciliation. As the peace movement of the 1960s grew, David began to lend out his books to activists, students and scholars. With the help of friends, he established a postal library service and this became his life's work. At his death in 1975, this library comprised over 3,000 titles, all meticulously classified and catalogued, according to his own system.

After his death, the Trustees of the Collection found the library a new home in the library of the University of Bradford, where the first School of Peace Studies had recently been established. Thanks to the J.B. Priestley Library and the hard work of trustees, co-ordinators and many volunteers, this unique collection has been able to remain intact and to maintain its independence and autonomy. In 1997, Commonweal became a registered charity.

Over time, the Collection's dedication to nonviolent social change has expanded to include books on the causes of violence injustice and war as well as on ways to achieve social change nonviolently and to reflect the changes in the world and our perception of it.

The collection also houses a unique archive about various movements for social change and peace, much used by researchers and some graphic material, such as the original designs for the nuclear disarmament logo and sketches by Gerald Holtom for the first Aldermaston march. Enquiries about accessing archives should be directed to Special Collections.

In 2001 the sculpture "peace", by the founder's brother, Chris Hoggett, was unveiled in the library, where it is still exhibited.

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